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The End of Barbarossa The Battle of Moscow
Six weeks had come and gone • Despite initial success, the German army did not defeat the Soviets in six weeks
In 2 months • 1,000,000 prisoners, 700,000 Russians dead, 500 miles into Russia. • Hitler orders part of Army Group Center (converging on Moscow) north to Leningrad and south to the Ukraine.
Ukrainians initially see Germans as liberators. SS + SD change their minds quickly.
The last Dash for the Germans • Began on November 15, 1941 • German Panzers used the frozen ground to their advantage • Established positions only 35 away from the Kremlin in Moscow • The army soon began to slow down though
September 8, 1942 • German army within 25 miles of Leningrad • Surrounded and bombed. No food, starvation: 11,000 Nov; 53,000 Dec; 500,000 all winter.
Stories from the Siege • Astoria Hotel
Winter is cold in Russia… • German army not supplied with winter clothing • Wearing the summer uniform or denim overalls • Had to remove clothing and boots from civilians • Tammen, Sean. Weather on the Eastern Front During the Second World War. Research Essay, 2011
Supply Problems • Hitler thought it better to send ammunition • On one occasion, clothing was found sitting in a train station in Warsaw
Frostbite • Temperature was -63 F • On Christmas, 100,000 cases of frostbite • Amputations were common
Tank troubles • Roads had turned to canals of bottomless mud • Ice made steering difficult • No anti-freeze
More tank problems • Engines would not work in the cold • Cold air flowed through the tank, cold for men • Tanks had to use more fuel, strained the supply lines
Infantry Problems • Arms frozen • Guns frozen • Everything frozen