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# Projectile Motion

Projectile Motion. YouTube - Baxter NOOOOOOOOOO. Amazing facts!. If a gun is fired horizontally, and at the same time a bullet is dropped from the same height. They both hit the ground at the same time. Amazing facts!. Amazing facts!. Amazing facts!. Amazing facts!.

## Projectile Motion

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1. Projectile Motion YouTube - Baxter NOOOOOOOOOO

2. Amazing facts! If a gun is fired horizontally, and at the same time a bullet is dropped from the same height. They both hit the ground at the same time.

3. Amazing facts!

4. Amazing facts!

5. Amazing facts!

6. Amazing facts! Mr Porter can demonstrate this for you.

7. Amazing facts! Why?

8. Vertical and horizontal Their vertical motion can be considered separate from their horizontal motion.

9. Vertical and horizontal Vertically, they both have zero initial velocity and accelerate downwards at 9.8 m.s-2. The time to fall the same vertical distance is therefore the same.

10. Watch that dog! Imagine a dog being kicked horizontally off the top of a cliff (with an initial velocity vh). vh

11. Parabola Assuming that there is negligible air resistance, he falls in the path of a parabola.

12. Parabola

13. Parabola Why?

14. Why a parabola? We can consider his motion to be the sum of his horizontal motion and vertical motion. We can treat these separately vh

15. Horizontal motion Assuming no air resistance, there are no horizontal forces. This means horizontally the dog moves with constant speed vh vh Horizontal distance travelled (x) = vht

16. Vertical motion Assuming no air resistance, there is constant force downwards (=mg). This means vertically the dog moves with constant acceleration g = 9.8 m.s-2 Vertical distance travelled (y) = uvt + ½gt2

17. Parabolic motion Since y = ½gt2 (if u = 0) and x = vht, y = ½gx2/vh2which you may (!) recognise as the formula of a parabola. Another piece of ultra cool physics!

18. Example A dog is kicked off the top of a cliff with an initial horizontal velocity of 5 m.s-1. If the cliff is 30 m high, how far from the cliff bottom will the dog hit the ground? 5 m.s-1 30 m

19. Example Looking at vertical motion first: u = 0, a = 9.8 m.s-2, s = 30 m,t = ? s = ut + ½at2 30 = ½ x 9.8 x t2 t2 = 6.1 t = 2.47 s The dog hits the ground after 2.47 seconds (yes!) 5 m.s-1 30 m

20. Example Now look at horizontal motion: Constant speed (horizontally) = 5 m.s-1 Time of fall = 2.47 seconds Horizontal distance travelled = speed x time Horizontal distance travelled = 5 x 2.47 = 12.4 mThe dog hits the ground 12.4 metres from the base of the cliff 5 m.s-1 30 m

21. Parabola 12.4 metres

22. What is the dog’s speed as he hits the ground? To answer this it is easier to think in terms of the dog’s total energy (kinetic and potential) 5 m.s-1 30 m

23. What is the dog’s speed as he hits the ground? Total energy at top = ½mv2 + mgh Total energy = ½m(5)2 + mx9.8x30 Total energy = 12.5m + 294m = 306.5m 5 m.s-1 30 m

24. What is the dog’s speed as he hits the ground? At the bottom, all the potential energy has been converted to kinetic energy. All the dog’s energy is now kinetic. energy = ½mv2 V = ?

25. What is the dog’s speed as he hits the ground? energy at top = energy at bottom 306.5m = ½mv2 306.5 = ½v2 613 = v2 V = 24.8 m.s-1 (Note that this is the dog’s speed as it hits the ground, not its velocity. v = 24.8 m.s-1

26. Let’s try some questions. Page 139 Questions 1, 2, 3 and 4.

27. Starting with non-horizontal motion Woof! (help)

28. Starting with non-horizontal motion 25 m.s-1 30°

29. Starting with non-horizontal motion • Split the initial velocity into vertical and horizontal components vh = 25cos30° vv = 25sin30° 25 m.s-1 30°

30. Starting with non-horizontal motion 2. Looking at the vertical motion, when the dog hits the floor, displacement = 0 Initial vertical velocity = vv = 25sin30° Acceleration = - 9.8 m.s-2 25 m.s-1 30°

31. Starting with non-horizontal motion 3. Using s = ut + ½at2 0 = 25sin30°t + ½(-9.8)t2 0 =12.5t - 4.75t2 0 = 12.5 – 4.75t 4.75t = 12.5 t = 12.5/4.75 = 2.63 s 25 m.s-1 30°

32. Starting with non-horizontal motion 4. Looking at horizontal motion Ball in flight for t = 2.63 s travelling with constant horizontal speed of vh = 25cos30° = 21.7 m.s-1. Distance travelled = vht = 21.7x2.63 = 57.1m 30° 57.1m

33. Starting with non-horizontal motion 5. Finding maximum height? Vertically; v = 0, u = 25sin30°, t = 2.63/2 s = (u + v)t = 12.5x1.315 = 8.2m 2 2 30°

34. Starting with non-horizontal motion 6. Don’t forget some problems can also be answered using energy. 30°

35. Starting with non-horizontal motion 6. Don’t forget some problems can also be answered using energy. As dog is fired total energy = ½m(25)2 25 m.s-1 30°

36. Starting with non-horizontal motion 6. At the highest point, total energy = KE + GPE =½m(25cos30°)2 + mgh As dog is fired total energy = ½m(25)2 30°

37. Starting with non-horizontal motion 6. So ½m(25cos30°)2 + mgh= ½m(25)2 ½(21.65)2 + 9.8h= ½(25)2 234.4 + 9.8h = 312.5 9.8h = 78.1 h = 8.0 m 30°

38. Let’s try some harder questions. Page 140 Questions 10, 11, 12, 19.

39. Investigation

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