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Architecture Conservation ( EAGD 5120 ) Lecture 4

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University of Palestine Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning Department of Architecture 1 st Semester 2010 -2011. Architecture Conservation ( EAGD 5120 ) Lecture 4 Aspects of Architectural conservation – Technical Aspects (Cont.) Dr. Nihad M. Almughany. CONTENTS.

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University of PalestineFaculty of Applied Engineering and Urban PlanningDepartment of Architecture1st Semester 2010 -2011

Architecture Conservation ( EAGD 5120 )

Lecture 4

Aspects of Architectural conservation – Technical Aspects (Cont.)

Dr. Nihad M. Almughany

contents
CONTENTS
  • 1- REVIEW OF LAST LECTURE.
  • 2- ASPECTS OFARCHITECTURAL CONSERVATION
  • 3- TECHNICAL ASPECTS
5 technical aspects
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS
  • 1- Collecting of Site and building environmental data:
    • Average Temperature & R. Humidity : Measurements are recorded in each space of the building ( Diagnostic Hygrometer Detector ) .
    • Average wall Temperature : Measurements are recorded for selected wall surfaces to determine weather there is any condensation on selected walls ( Dew point temperature) (Dew point detector ).
    • Salt Detection : To determine the presence of conductive salt contamination on surfaces of damped walls . A chemical salt analysis to be carried out to determine the presence of chlorides and / or Nitrates.
    • Hygrometric Measurement : Dampness is detected on wall surface and in depth . ( Diagnostic Hygrometer Detector )
    • Measurement of R.H. in wood : (Diagnostic Hygrometer Detector )
5 technical aspects cont
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • 2- Analysis and assessment of structural elements:
    • Investigation of defeats in walls .
    • Investigation of foundations : open pits beside walls: pits outside and inside the building to assess the situation of the foundation
      • Foundation level
      • Foundation dimensions
      • Foundation materials and construction : stone – mortar
      • Laboratory tests for foundation :
5 technical aspects cont1
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Laboratory tests for foundation :
    • Grain size distribution analysis
    • Evaluation of soil parameters ( shear strength )
    • Deformation characteristics
    • Water content percentage
    • Unit weight
    • Specific gravity
    • Coefficient of permeability
    • Bearing capacity for soil at different levels especially under the foundation level
    • Chemical analysis of ground water
5 technical aspects cont2
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • 2- Analysis and assessment of structural elements (Cont.)
    • Beams
    • Trusses
    • Arches
    • Panels
    • Vaults
5 technical aspects cont3
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • 3- Analyzing and detecting causes of decay(explained earlier).
5 technical aspects cont4
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • 4- Sampling and laboratory tests:
    • A- Stone:
      • Strength and mechanical tests :
        • Uni – axial compression strength
        • Tensile strength
      • Physical properties tests :
        • Absorption
        • Porosity and permeability
        • Density
      • Complete chemical analysis
      • X- ray diffraction analysis
      • Polarized microscopic study
      • Scanning Electronic Microscope ( SEM )
5 technical aspects cont5
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • 4- Sampling and laboratory tests:
    • B- Mortar and Plaster : selected samples from specific sections inside walls at depth of 15 cm:
      • Image processing , microscopic description
      • Thermo gravimetric measurements, chromatographic analysis, X ray diffraction
      • Desegregation system
      • Carbonation system
      • Granilometry curve , specific weight of mortar and the volume weight of the aggregate.
5 technical aspects cont6
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • 4- Sampling and laboratory tests:
    • C- Paintings and pigments :
      • Chemical analysis
      • X – ray diffraction analysis
      • Infra – red absorption spectral analysis
      • Spectroscopy and Mineralogical study for mineral pigments of coloring substance
      • Determination of volume ratio
    • D- Marble :
      • Desalination of marble encrustation
      • Abrasion test
5 technical aspects cont7
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • 5- Main Restoration works :
    • A- CONSOLIDATION : التدعيم
5 technical aspects cont8
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works
    • B- REMOVAL OF ANY ADDITIVE HARMFUL MATERIALS :
      • طبقات الخرسانة على الأسقف
      • القصارة الاسمنتية
      • البلاط السيراميك على الجدران
      • التمديدات المختلفة
      • أي عناصر مضافة وضارة أخرى

ملاحظة : حفظ العناصر المكشوفة بعد ازالة المواد من العوامل الخارجية مثل تغطية الأسقف حتى يتم معالجتها

5 technical aspects cont9
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works :
    • C- REMOVAL AND PREVENTION OF DAMP:التخلص من الرطوبة ومنعها
      • كشف وتهوية الأسقف فترة كافية
      • كشف وتهوية الحوائط
      • كشف الأساسات وتهويتها فهي مصدر الخاصية الشعرية عن طريق حفر خنادق تهوية و / أو حقن مواد عازلة
      • منع تسلل الرطوبة من خلال عناصر المبنى ( الأسقف – الحوائط – العتبات – الشبابيك والأبواب – الأساسات – الحلول )
5 technical aspects cont10
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works
    • D- REMOVAL OF BOTANIC AND BIOLOGICAL ELEMENTS:
    • التخلص من العناصر البيولوجية والنباتية ومنعها
      • طرق الازالة التقليدية
      • الطرق الكيماوية
      • الطرق الايكولوجية
5 technical aspects cont11
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works :
    • E- STRUCTURAL FITTNESS OF ELEMENTS.
    • F- TREATMENT OF DIFFERENT WORKS
      • F1 – Stone Works
5 technical aspects cont12
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works :
    • F2 – Iron Works
5 technical aspects cont13
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works :
    • F3 – Glass Works
5 technical aspects cont14
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works :
    • F4 – Lead Works
5 technical aspects cont15
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works :
      • F5 – Wood Works