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Consciousness and states of awareness. Consciousness – what we are aware of at any given time Sensation/perception – how we sense thing both internal and external world Consciousness – What we sense/perceive Factors affecting consciousness (awareness) Attention

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consciousness and states of awareness
Consciousness and states of awareness
  • Consciousness – what we are aware of at any given time
    • Sensation/perception – how we sense thing both internal and external world
    • Consciousness – What we sense/perceive
  • Factors affecting consciousness (awareness)
    • Attention
    • Altered states (drugs, hypnosis, meditation, etc.)
    • Continuum of wakefulness
controlling attention
Controlling attention
  • Attentional control – Can we always ignore or attend to just what we want?

Big

Small

Couch

Chair

Him

Her

Green

orange

blue

yellow

purple

White

Stroop effect

stroop effect
Stroop effect
  • Distinction between automatic and controlled processing
    • Reading – automatic
    • Color naming –controlled
consciousness or states of arousal
Consciousness or states of arousal
  • Affects attention and other behaviors
  • Some different states of arousal/consciousness
    • Sleep
    • Drugs
    • Hypnosis
    • Meditation
  • Form a continuum
circadian rythms
Circadian rythms
  • 24-hour body clock
  • Many functions exhibit circadian rhythms
  • Alertness
  • Body temperature
  • Hormone release
circadian rhythms and levels of alertness
Circadian rhythms and levels of alertness
  • Most aware of this one
    • Generally gradual increase until about noon
    • Dip after noon
    • Slow decline until night fall
  • All nighters and circadian rhthms
    • 3-5 am most difficult time
    • Surge around 10 am
    • Won’t necessarily fall asleep earlier
what controls circadian rhythms
What controls circadian rhythms
  • Is it light dark cycle?
    • Why this would be reasonable
  • Cave experiment
sleep
Sleep
  • Under control of circadian rhythms
  • Importance of the electroencephalograph (EEG)
    • How does it work
  • Initial theories about sleep
    • Unitary state theory
sleep research
Sleep research

EEG and sleep

rapid eye movement rem sleep
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
  • Brain activity closest to waking state
    • Muscles are most relaxed
    • Least likely stage to sleepwalk (stages 1 and 2 most likely
  • Most difficult stage to wake someone from
  • If awakened about 90% will report dreaming
    • If awaken during stage 4 about 10% report dreaming
  • So important other stages called Non-REM sleep
stages of sleep through the night
Stages of sleep through the night
  • First fall asleep – Stage 1 (hynogogic) only when first fall asleep
    • stage 4 after about 30 minutes
    • Most responsive to external stimuli here
  • Cycle back to stage 2 then have first REM bout
    • First REM relatively short
stages of sleep through the night1
Stages of sleep through the night
  • Usually 4-5 cycles per night
    • Easiest to wake at earlier stages
    • Will be most alert wake at earlier stages
    • Least alert wake at REM or stage 4
    • Implications for staying awake all night
stages of sleep through the night2
Stages of sleep through the night
  • Changes throughout night
    • Duration of REM periods increase
    • Time in stage 4 decreases
how much sleep do we need
How much sleep do we need
  • Variable
    • Most (70%) need 7-8 hours
    • Small percent need lot less or lot more
    • Extraordinary cases need less than 1 hr
changes across the life span
Changes across the life span
  • Infant can need up to 16 hours
  • By 60-70 generally around 6 hours
  • College students 7-8
why do we sleep
Why do we sleep
  • Is it restorative
    • Evidence against
  • Is it to dream (Freud)
  • What areas of brain most active during sleep
  • Evolutionary explanation of why we sleep
neural basis of dreaming
Neural basis of dreaming
  • Which areas of brain most active during dreaming
  • Physiological approach to dream interpretation?

Areas active during dreaming

effects of sleep deprivation
Effects of sleep deprivation
  • World record for hours without sleep 264 hours (11 days)
  • Impossible to go without sleep indefinitely
  • Importance of REM sleep
    • REM rebound
    • Effects of REM and non-REM deprivation on task performance
sleep disorders
Sleep disorders
  • Insomnia (different types)
    • Difficulty falling asleep
    • Difficulty falling back to sleep (if awakened)
    • Light sleep (easily awakened) and fail to get sufficient REM
  • Sleep apnea
  • Difficulty (cessation) of breathing during sleep
    • Can awaken 500 times during night
    • Failure to get sufficient REM
sleep disorders1
Sleep disorders
  • Narcolepsy
    • Sudden onset of sleep
    • Go immediately into REM
    • Often report hallucinations (probably just dreams)
psychoactive drugs
Psychoactive drugs
  • Changes in consciousness that can affect behavior
  • Range from stimulants to depressants
  • Most common (in order)
    • Caffeine
    • Nicotine
    • Alcohol
    • Tranquilizers
    • Illegal drugs
depressants
Depressants
  • Alcohol – by far most common
    • Physiological effects general slowing of NS
    • Low doses produce general sense of well being
      • Blood alcohol levels (.05)
    • Higher doses (BAL .1)
      • More aggressive
      • Severe cognitive impairment
      • Severe physical impairment
    • Extremely high does (BAL > .7) can result in death
brain images of alcohol
Brain images of alcohol

Lighter areas indicate higher activity

depressants continued
Depressants continued
  • Barbiturates
    • Range from mild (valium) to strong (anesthetics)
      • Can produce physical addiction
        • Withdrawal produces physical symptoms
      • Biggest danger: combined with alcohol can cause death
        • Essentially giving two depressants
  • Opiates
    • Strongest narcotics
    • Physical addiction
    • Withdrawal can cause death
stimulants
Stimulants
  • Examples: Nicotine, caffeine, cocaine
  • Produce general increase in both somatic and autonomic nervous system
    • BP, heart rate, digestion, all increase
    • Jitters and other physical manifestations
  • Mild stimulants (nicotine, caffeine) can have beneficial effects on performance
    • Improved concentration, awareness, better performance
stimulants cont d
Stimulants (cont’d)
  • Many stimulants can be physically addicting
    • Nicotine, caffeine, cocaine
  • Most act as appetite suppressors.
  • Most act by increasing action of dopamine
    • Prevent breakdown
    • Increase release
    • Release of dopamine and pleasure centers
hallucinogens
Hallucinogens
  • Examples: Marijuana, LSD, phencyclidine (PCP- “angel dust”)
  • Distort perceptions
    • Mild distortions (e.g., marijuana): general slowing of time, increased attention to sensory input
    • Severe distortions (e.g., LSD): Multi-sensory distortions – (e.g., sound produces visual, tactile experience)
hallucinogens cont d
Hallucinogens (cont’d)
  • PCP –phencyclidine
    • Used as anesthetic
    • Produces serve hallucinations and delusions
  • Combination is particularly dangerous
hypnosis
Hypnosis
  • Definition
    • State of arousal between sleep and wake
    • Heightened suggestibility
    • Can respond to external stimuli
  • Large individual differences
    • About 15% of people highly hypnotizable
    • About 10% not responsive at all
  • Post hypnotic suggestions
    • What are they?
    • Do people remember
    • Limitations
hypnosis1
Hypnosis
  • Does it work?
    • Pain relief
    • Possible mechanism: Experience not available to consciousness
      • Dissociation explanation – temperature experiment (one hand in ice water; other hand asked to write by free association)
      • Dissociation between behavior and what is written
    • Recall of memories
      • Use in eyewitness testimony
      • Repressed memories of sexual abuse?
meditation
Meditation
  • Is it a “different” state
    • Physiological changes
    • Are they different from other points along the continuum of arousal
selective attention
Selective attention
  • Definition
  • Effects
    • On attended stimuli
    • On unattended stimuli
  • Testing
    • Dichotic listening task
    • Performance on attended ear
    • Performance unattended ear
    • Physical changes in unattended ear
selective attention1
Selective attention
  • Humans have superb selective attention abilities
  • Cocktail party phenomenon
    • Can attend to one conversation among many
    • Sometimes want non-attended stimuli become attended
importance of selective attention
Importance of selective attention
  • Can attend to limited number of stimuli
  • Effects of requiring attention to too much stimuli
  • Dual task procedures
    • General procedures
    • Results
count the number of 1 s single task
Count the number of 1’s –single task

10 2 5 3 1 10 5 7 3 10 7 6 3 8 10 6 5 9 4 6

8 3 10 10 3 5 1 6 9 3 2 9 1 9 5 5 1 1 4 2

3 8 5 1 7 10 9 6 7 2 5 6 5 6 8 5 3 5 4 2

3 2 6 3 7 10 6 2 7 2 6 2 10 8 4 3 9 3 8 1

9 6 7 4 5 6 2 5 3 2 9 4 2 3 9 6 6 2 9 4

2 4 8 8 10 10 9 3 3 3 6 4 1 6 5 7 5 1 3 7

9 9 3 9 10 8 6 1 10 7 6 2 2 6 5 10 9 7 5 6

6 1 6 3 1 2 2 5 8 9 2 10 8 4 5 10 9 3 1 3

1 6 8 8 9 4 5 2 7 2 3 5 2 4 8 9 10 9 9 5

3 6 10 10 8 6 9 9 5 6 4 2 1 9 4 4 7 3 9 5

count the number of 1 s and number of the s
Count the number of 1’s AND number of “the’s”

10 4 8 8 2 6 5 3 8 9 9 2 2 10 2 1 1 6 9 9

5 10 8 4 2 2 5 1 9 3 7 3 8 1 10 6 10 6 9 4

2 10 10 4 4 7 1 6 5 2 3 5 2 3 6 8 9 4 4 6

8 10 10 7 6 3 3 6 4 1 7 4 2 2 8 6 10 2 2 2

3 5 7 8 8 8 2 1 2 2 9 7 4 3 1 3 2 2 4 5

10 1 9 3 1 4 2 1 2 3 6 2 5 1 5 2 1 5 1 4

6 10 5 7 3 6 1 9 4 3 10 8 10 6 7 1 4 9 1 4

6 4 1 6 7 5 4 4 1 1 3 7 4 10 1 4 3 4 9 10

7 5 4 10 2 5 6 2 3 5 2 7 4 6 10 1 2 8 5 7

attention and dual tasks
Attention and dual tasks
  • Can attend to two or more stimuli simultaneously
    • Effects on performance
  • Everyday importance?
subliminal perception
Subliminal perception
  • Subliminal – below threshold
    • If has effect must be attended to
    • Not consciously aware of all we attend to
  • Subliminal messages outlawed
    • Recent controversy