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Bell Ringer . What was Operation Overlord? What occurred on June 6, 1944? What was V-E Day? Who were the kamikazes? . Chapter 32: World War II, 1939 - 1945. Section 5 – Europe and Japan in Ruins. Devastation in Europe .

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bell ringer
Bell Ringer
  • What was Operation Overlord?
  • What occurred on June 6, 1944?
  • What was V-E Day?
  • Who were the kamikazes?
chapter 32 world war ii 1939 1945

Chapter 32: World War II, 1939 - 1945

Section 5 – Europe and Japan in Ruins

devastation in europe
Devastation in Europe
  • By the end of World War II, Europe lay in ruins. Close to 40 million Europeans died. Hundreds of cities had been reduced to rubble and much of the countryside had been destroyed.
devastation in europe1
Devastation in Europe

A Harvest of Destruction

A few of the great cities of Europe remained largely undamaged by war

Included Paris, Rome and Brussels

The Battle of Britain left huge areas of London in ruins

Warsaw was almost completely destroyed

Had a population of nearly 1.3 million; after the war only 153,000 remained

95% of Berlin had been destroyed

devastation in europe2
Devastation in Europe
  • Misery Continues After the War
    • The misery in Europe continued for years after the war
      • The fighting destroyed Europe’s countryside and disrupted agriculture
      • Most able bodied men had served in the military while the women had worked in war production leaving few to plant fields
      • With the transportation system destroyed, meager harvests often didn’t reach cities
        • Thousands died from famine and disease spread through the bombed-out cities
postwar governments and politics
Postwar Governments and Politics
  • Europeans often blamed their leaders for the war and its aftermath. After the war, the Communist Party promised change and millions were ready to listen. In both France and Italy, Communist Party membership skyrocketed. Communists made huge gains in the first postwar elections. Anxious to speed up a political takeover, they staged a series of violent strikes. Alarmed French and Italians reacted by voting for anticommunists parties. Communist Party membership and influence began to decline.
postwar governments and politics1
Postwar Governments and Politics

The Nuremberg Trials

While nations were struggling to recover politically and economically, they also tried to deal with the issue of war crimes.

During 1945 and 1946, an International Military Tribunal representing 23 nations put Nazi war criminals on trial in Nuremberg, Germany

postwar governments and politics2
Postwar Governments and Politics
  • In the first of the Nuremberg Trials, 22 Nazi leaders were charged with waging a war of aggression
    • Also accused of committing “crimes against humanity”, by murdering 11 million people
    • Were found guilty and either sentenced to life in prison or executed
postwar japan
Postwar Japan
  • Japan was also left in ruins after World War II. 2 million lives had been lost and their major cities had been destroyed in bombing raids. The atomic bomb had turned Hiroshima and Nagasaki into wastelands. They had also been stripped of their colonial empire.
postwar japan1
Postwar Japan

Occupied Japan

General Douglas MacArthur had accepted the Japanese surrender and took charge of the US occupation of Japan

Wanted to be fair and not plant the seeds of a future war

Began the process of demilitarization, or disbanding of the Japanese armed forces

Left Japan with only a small police force

Started bringing war criminals to trial

postwar japan2
Postwar Japan
  • Turned his attention to democratization, or the process of creating a government elected by the people
    • In February 1946, drew up a new constitution
    • Changed the empire into a constitutional monarchy
    • The Japanese accepted the constitution and it went into effect in May 1947
  • MacArthur was told not to revive the Japanese economy
postwar japan3
Postwar Japan
  • Was instructed to broaden land ownership and increase the participation of workers and farmers in the government
    • Required absentee landlords with huge estates to sell land to the government
    • The government then sold the land to tenant farmers at reasonable prices
  • Other reforms gave workers the right to create independent labor unions
occupation brings deep changes
Occupation Brings Deep Changes
  • The new constitution was the most important achievement of the occupation
    • Brought deep changes to Japanese society
      • The emperor had long been viewed as divine and an absolute ruler whose will was law
        • Now had to admit that he was not divine and his power was drastically reduced
          • Was mainly a figurehead and symbol of Japan
occupation brings deep changes1
Occupation Brings Deep Changes
  • The new constitution guaranteed that real political power rested with the people
    • Elected a two-house parliament
    • All citizens over the age of 20, including women, had the right to vote
    • The government was led by a prime minister chosen by a majority of the parliament
    • A constitutional bill of rights protected basic freedoms
    • Article 9 of the constitution stated that the Japanese could no longer make war
      • Could only fight if attacked
occupation brings deep changes2
Occupation Brings Deep Changes
  • In September 1951, the US and 47 other nations signed a formal peace treaty with Japan
    • 6 months later, US occupation ended
  • With no armed forces, Japan agreed to continuing US military presence
  • The US and Japan were now allies
occupation brings deep changes3
Occupation Brings Deep Changes
  • World War II changed the political landscape of Europe
    • The US and the Soviet Union emerged from the war as the world’s 2 major powers
  • Also ended the war as allies
  • It soon became clear that their postwar goals were very different
    • These differences stirred up conflicts that would shape the modern world for decades
the end
The End!
  • This was the end of notes!
  • (It’s okay to be happy about that! )