Respiration. The Chemistry of Respiration. energy and mitochondria clip. Adenosine triphosphate. The energy released during respiration is not used directly by cells. Instead it is used to make a molecule called ATP which stores the energy until it is needed.
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energy and mitochondria clip
ATP = Adenosine triphosphate
slow twitch/fast twitch investigation
ATP is made when another molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is bonded to a third inorganic phosphate (Pi) using the energy released from glucose.
Energy from respiration
Energy Rich bond formed
ADP + Pi ATP
The whole process is under the control of enzymes
Energy released to do work
Aerobic respiration = respiration with oxygen.
Stage 1 – Glycolysis
In glycolysis, a glucose molecule is broken down into pyruvic acid.
series of enzyme
energy released to make small quantity of ATP
Glycolysis does not require oxygen
IT TAKES PLACE IN THE CYTOPLASM
The pyruvic acid made in glycolysis (stage1) still contains a lot of energy
It can only be broken down to release the rest of the energy in the presenceofoxygen.
energy released to make large
quantity of ATP
series of enzyme controlled reactions
carbon dioxide + water
2 ADP + 2 Pi =
36 ADP + 36 Pi =
carbon dioxide + water
2 molecules ATP from glucose pyruvic acid
36 molecules ATP from pyruvic acid carbon- dioxide +water
Total 38 molecules ATP
anaerobic = in the absence of oxygen
glycolysis still happens as it does not require oxygen
2 ADP + 2 Pi
in absence of oxygen pyruvic acid is turned into lactic acid.
A build up of lactic acid produces musclefatigue. Muscle fatigue makes muscles ache and contract less powerfully.A recovery period is needed. During this time more oxygen is taken in to convert the lactic acid back into pyruvic acid again.The volume of oxygen needed is called the oxygen debt.
e.g. during hard exercise
repaid during recovery time
The same process occurs in plants and yeast in low oxygen conditions, e.g. muddy, flooded soils.
2 ADP + 2 Pi
glycolysis still happens, producing
2 ATP molecules
This time in absence of oxygen, pyruvic acid is turned into carbon dioxide and ethanol
This is irreversible
ethanol + carbon dioxide
Forces gases given off by seeds into test tube.
2 What is the advantage of using germinating seeds instead of living non-germinating seeds?
Germinating seeds need a lot of energy and therefore the rate of respiration will be high
To prevent bacterial growth which also respire and which will affect the results.
4 Why is the apparatus left in a dark cupboard?
To prevent photosynthesis which uses any carbon dioxide which may be given off.
5 What do you observe of the lime water after a few days?
Germinating seeds give off carbon dioxide
Turns milky because the snails give off CO2
No animals in C
D not milky
Place in dark cupboard to stop photosynthesis which absorbs CO2
Ja. Because they need a lot of energy and produce a lot of CO2 in respiration.
To kill bacteria which also respire and which will affect the results.
Traps the heat and allows the thermometer to record this rise in temperature.
Allows the CO2 to escape from the thermos flask
Use different types of food to calculate which will give the most energy
M = mass of water (g)
T=rise in temperature ( °C)
breathing and respiration
2 What is this energy converted to by other organisms? Give at least 3 examples.
3 What name is given to the process by which organisms release energy?
4 What kind of energy is always released in respiration?