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Respiration. The Chemistry of Respiration. energy and mitochondria clip. Adenosine triphosphate. The energy released during respiration is not used directly by cells. Instead it is used to make a molecule called ATP which stores the energy until it is needed.

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the chemistry of respiration

The Chemistry of Respiration

energy and mitochondria clip

adenosine triphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate
  • The energy released during respiration is not used directly by cells.
  • Instead it is used to make a molecule called ATP which stores the energy until it is needed.

ATP = Adenosine triphosphate

what does atp do
What does ATP do?
  • ATP supplies energy for all the processes that need it.
  • For example:
          • movement
          • chemical reactions
          • growth.

slow twitch/fast twitch investigation

formation of atp
Formation of ATP

ATP is made when another molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is bonded to a third inorganic phosphate (Pi) using the energy released from glucose.

slide7

adenosine

Pi

Pi

+

Pi

adenosine

Pi

Pi

Pi

Energy from respiration

Enzymes

Energy Rich bond formed

summarised as
Summarised as:

ADP + Pi ATP

The whole process is under the control of enzymes

the role of atp
The role of ATP
  • ATP stores the energy in the third bond of the molecule
  • The energy is released when that bond is broken to release the third inorganic phosphate (Pi) .
slide10

adenosine

Pi

Pi

+

Pi

adenosine

Pi

Pi

Pi

ATP

Enzymes

ADP

Energy released to do work

summary

ATP

ATP

energy

(in)

energy

(out)

energy

(out)

cellular respiration

cellular respiration

cell activities

cell activities

ADP + Pi

Summary

The whole process is an enzyme controlled reaction.

aerobic respiration

Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic respiration = respiration with oxygen.

glucose oxygen energy carbon dioxide water to make atp c 6 h 12 o6 6o 2 38atp 6co 2 6h 2 o
glucose + OXYGEN energy + carbon dioxide + water(to make ATP)C6H12O6 + 6O2 38ATP + 6CO2 + 6H2O
cellular respiration
Cellular Respiration
  • 3 step process
    • Glycolysis
    • Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle
    • Oxidativephosphorylation
aerobic respiration happens in 2 stages
Aerobic respiration happens in 2 stages:

Stage 1 – Glycolysis

glycolysis

glucose splitting

slide16

In glycolysis, a glucose molecule is broken down into pyruvic acid.

glucose

series of enzyme

controlled reactions

energy released to make small quantity of ATP

(2 molecules)

pyruvic acid

Glycolysis does not require oxygen

IT TAKES PLACE IN THE CYTOPLASM

stage 2 breakdown of pyruvic acid
Stage 2 – Breakdown of pyruvic acid

The pyruvic acid made in glycolysis (stage1) still contains a lot of energy

It can only be broken down to release the rest of the energy in the presenceofoxygen.

slide18

pyruvic acid

energy released to make large

quantity of ATP

(36 molecules)

series of enzyme controlled reactions

carbon dioxide + water

atp production summary
ATP production – summary

glucose

2 ADP + 2 Pi =

2 ATP

pyruvic acid

  • Two phases:
  • Kreb’s cycle
  • Oxidative phosphrylation

36 ADP + 36 Pi =

36 ATP

carbon dioxide + water

summary of atp production
Summary of ATP production
  • Stage 1 and 2 release all the chemical energy in one molecule of glucose to make a total of 38ATP molecules.

2 molecules ATP from glucose  pyruvic acid

36 molecules ATP from pyruvic acid  carbon- dioxide +water

Total 38 molecules ATP

anaerobic respiration in animals

Anaerobic Respiration(in animals)

anaerobic = in the absence of oxygen

slide23
Inlow oxygen conditions or during heavy exercise, when not enough oxygen can be supplied, muscle cells swap to anaerobicrespiration
slide24

glucose

glycolysis still happens as it does not require oxygen

2 ADP + 2 Pi

2 ATP

pyruvic acid

in absence of oxygen pyruvic acid is turned into lactic acid.

lactic acid

slide25

A build up of lactic acid produces musclefatigue. Muscle fatigue makes muscles ache and contract less powerfully.A recovery period is needed. During this time more oxygen is taken in to convert the lactic acid back into pyruvic acid again.The volume of oxygen needed is called the oxygen debt.

summary1
Summary

glucose

pyruvic acid

oxygen debt

e.g. during hard exercise

oxygen debt

repaid during recovery time

lactic acid

anaerobic respiration in plants alcoholic fermentation

Anaerobic Respiration in plants(Alcoholic fermentation)

The same process occurs in plants and yeast in low oxygen conditions, e.g. muddy, flooded soils.

slide28

glucose

pyruvic acid

2 ADP + 2 Pi

2 ATP

glycolysis still happens, producing

2 ATP molecules

This time in absence of oxygen, pyruvic acid is turned into carbon dioxide and ethanol

This is irreversible

ethanol + carbon dioxide

beer alcohol co 2 from anaerobic respiration in plants alcoholic fermentation
BEER = alcohol + CO2 from anaerobic respiration in plants = ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
  • This guy had a serious beer drinking problem
slide33
Explain why the mouth of the thistle funnel is sealed.

Forces gases given off by seeds into test tube.

2 What is the advantage of using germinating seeds instead of living non-germinating seeds?

Germinating seeds need a lot of energy and therefore the rate of respiration will be high

slide34
Explain why the seeds in the CONTROL are placed in formalin?

To prevent bacterial growth which also respire and which will affect the results.

4 Why is the apparatus left in a dark cupboard?

To prevent photosynthesis which uses any carbon dioxide which may be given off.

5 What do you observe of the lime water after a few days?

  • EXPERIMENT: Turns milky
  • CONTROL: Stays clear
  • What may we conclude from this experiment?

Germinating seeds give off carbon dioxide

slide35

KOH

Lime water

Lime water

Turns milky because the snails give off CO2

No animals in C

D not milky

Place in dark cupboard to stop photosynthesis which absorbs CO2

Ja. Because they need a lot of energy and produce a lot of CO2 in respiration.

slide36
Why are the flasks inverted?
  • To allow CO2 which is heavier than air to pass out of flask and not poison the seeds.
  • To be able to read the thermometer.
  • To keep the thermometer bulb immersed in the seeds.
  • You don’t have to fill the thermos flask with seeds so that there is air available to the respiring seeds.
slide37
Soaking the seeds in formalin and sterilising the flasks serve the same function. What is it and explain why this procedure must be carried out.

To kill bacteria which also respire and which will affect the results.

  • What is the advantage of using a:
  • thermos flask instead on ordinary glass flask?

Traps the heat and allows the thermometer to record this rise in temperature.

  • cotton wool stopper instead of a rubber stopper?

Allows the CO2 to escape from the thermos flask

slide38
Oil/paraffin keeps out oxygen and maintains anaerobic conditions for the yeast to respire and produce alcohol and carbon dioxide.
  • We can test for alcohol by smelling it or igniting it (with care)
calculating energy in food
Calculating energy in food
  • A given amount of any substance always requires the same amount of energy to produce a particular increase in temperature.
  • 1000g of water needs………………..4.2 kJ to make its temperature rise by 1 oC
custard powder experiment
Custard powder experiment
  • Did the food contain energy?
  • What kind of energy did it have to start with?
  • What kinds of energy was this released as?
comparing energy in carbohydrates proteins and fats
Comparing energy in carbohydrates,proteins and fats

Use different types of food to calculate which will give the most energy

calculating the energy content of foods
Calculating the energy content of foods
  • The formula to calculate the energy release is
  • 4.2 x M x T
  • Now calculate the energy content of your foods

M = mass of water (g)

T=rise in temperature ( °C)

1000

gases and respiration
Gases and respiration
  • A: Living Peas B: Dead Peas
  • Burn a lighted splint in each gas jar.
do other organisms respire
Do other organisms respire?

breathing and respiration

slide48
1 Which type of energy does food contain?

2 What is this energy converted to by other organisms? Give at least 3 examples.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

3 What name is given to the process by which organisms release energy?

4 What kind of energy is always released in respiration?