Reproductive Ethics • New Reproductive Technologies • In vitro fertilization/Artificial insemination, etc., etc. • Types of Parenthood: • Genetic Mother • Genetic Father • Gestational Mother • Nurturing Mother • Nurturing Father • No longer need A, C, and D to be the same woman • Which one is the "real" parent?
Reproductive Ethics How far should we control our own reproduction? Cloning Genetic altering of cloned material Sperm/egg "catalogues" What do we do with non-implanted embryos? Can sperm be harvested post-mortem and used for reproduction?
Reproductive Ethics & the New Reproductive Technologies • Issues: • Parenthood: who's the "real" parent? • Surrogate Parenthood • Should it be allowed? • If allowed, what are the conditions for a surrogate parenthood contract? • Right of first refusal • Health of Gestational Mother • What if there are defects? Who's responsible
Reproductive Ethics & the New Reproductive Technologies • Surrogate Parenthood (cont.) • Does the surrogate mother have rights to the child post partum? • The status of the surrogate mother is dependant on her role, e.g. provider of the womb, provider of the egg(s) • Cases: Baby M and Mary Beth Whitehead
Reproductive Ethics & the New Reproductive Technologies • Cloning • For: Ideal candidate for transplantsReplacing lost childrenSelecting traits • Against: Against Nature or GodNon-natural means of reproductionReduces genetic diversityProduces "designer children"
Reproductive Ethics & the New Reproductive Technologies • Cloning (cont.) • Related Issue: Genetic altering of cloned material • Possible problem: "age" of clone Other issues: status of first cloned cellsstatus of mature human clone
Reproductive Ethics & the New Reproductive Technologies • Sperm/Egg "Catalogues" • What do we do with non-implanted embryos? • What is the moral status of being from fertilized egg to embryo to birth? • Should there be research on embryos? • Does it have the right to be implanted, to thrive, to not be harmed? • Should frozen embryos be thought of as property? Davis case
Reproductive Ethics & the New Reproductive Technologies • Can sperm be harvested post-mortem and used for reproduction? • At what point does the number of children born at one time become unacceptable? Septuplets? Octuplets? Nonuplets? • Is there an upper limit on the age of the mother? 55? 60? 65? • Are there unacceptable reasons for having children, e.g. Ayala case?
Abortion • 1) When does personhood begin? • Personhood = Has the right to life • = Has the right to develop • = Has the right not to be harmed • Some answers: • At conception • When electrical activity begins • At "quickening" • At viability: the end of the 2nd trimester (24 weeks) • Usually means :national viability," not needing elaborate technical support
Abortion Currently, babies can be saved after about 21 weeks, 1000-1500 grams • What kind of question is "when does personhood begin?" • A scientific question • A religious or philosophical question • Whenever personhood begins, does anything override it? • Harm to the mother? • A woman's right to control her own body?