Creating Responsive Learning Environments Mercer, Ch. 1
Prominent Values in Schools • Turn to page 5 • With a partner discuss Table 1.1 • How would these different values conflict? • How would you adapt to both values?
Cognitive Characteristics • Metacognitive Deficits • Low Academic Achievement • Poor Memory • Attention Problems • Perceptual Disorders • (Each partner take one and prepare to explain)
Affective & Behavioral Characteristics • Poor Social Skills • Poor Self-Concept • Poor Motivation • Debilitating Mood States • Adaptive Behavior Deficits • Disruptive Behavior • Withdrawal • (Each group take one and discuss)
Designing IEPs • PLOP • Annual goals and benchmarks • Related services • Program modifications • Explanation to which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular class • Statement modifications in statewide or district wide assessments • Projected date for the beginning of the services • Anticipated frequency, location, and duration of services • Statement of how the child’s progress toward annual goals • Statement of how parents will be regularly informed
Annual Goals • Must relate to the PLOP • Must be measurable Example: PLOP: Jill orally reads 6th grade material at a rate of 50-75 words per minute and correctly answers 30-40% of factual comprehension questions asked orally Annual Goal: By June 15 Jill will orally read 7th grade material at 75-100 words per minute with 0-2 errors and correctly answer 90-100% of factual questions.
Short-term objectives • Stepping stones toward annual goal • Must be measurable • Should have at least 2-3 for each annual goal • Example: Obj. 1 By Dec.1 Jill will read 6th grade material orally at 75-100 words per minute with 0-2 errors and correctly answer 60% of factual comprehension questions • Obj. 2 By March 1 Jill will read 6th grade material orally at 100-125 words per minute with 0-2 errors and correctly answer more than 70% of factual questions
General Education Class • Special Materials and Consultation • Itinerant Services • Resource Room Assistance • Inclusion with co-teaching
Regular Education Initiative (REI) • Major revisions on how services are provided • Disagreed with the dual system of special education and general education • Recommended the continuum of special education services be eliminated • Students with disabilities be educated totally in the general education environment
Rationale for REI • Some students with LD or EBD do not qualify for special education • Special education stigma • Special education emphasizes failure rather than prevention • With rigid eligibility requirements does not promote cooperative school-parent relationships
Inclusion Movement • Little evidence exists to support the education of students in segregated settings • The world is an inclusive community • Need to prepare students to learn and grow within communities similar to the world they live in
Rationale for Inclusion • Placing student in integrated or inclusive settings is morally right • Identifying and labeling students within special education is harmful • Special education placements have not proven effective • Through collaboration, the educational needs can be met • Placing students with and without disabilities together teaches youngsters to understand and appreciate individual differences
Rationale for Continuum of Alternative Placements • Special education placements are necessary to meet the intense and diverse needs of students with disabilities • Parents have fought hard for services over the years, inclusion threatens the loss of service options • Continuum of placement options is mandated by law • General education teachers are not prepared to work with students with disabilities • Many general education teachers do not support inclusion • No clear evidence that inclusion is appropriate for all students with disabilities
Models for Teachers Teaching Teachers • Collaborative Consultation • Teacher Assistance Teams • Coaching • Peer Collaboration • Cooperative Teaching