Culturally Responsive Environments TOPIC Making a Difference: Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) May 14, 2012 PRESENTER Dr. Patrick C. Coggins, PhD., LLD (Hon.) Sponsored by Stetson University Diversity Council 1
Cultural Competence Philosophy “Cultural Competence is a Philosophy and a way of life that enables us to appreciate, respect and help people to achieve their highest level of Humanness.” (Patrick Coggins, 2000, CDC accepted definition) 2
Why CRT ? • Two Human Rights issues that Eleanor Roosevelt was involved in? • Tuskegee Airmen Experience in 1944 • The 1948 ,Universal Declaration of Human Rights—(30 Rights)
Preamble to the Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights • “Whereas, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and unalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.” (U.N., 1948)
Article 1 • “ All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.”
Article 15 • “Everyone has the right to a nationality. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change its nationality.”
Article 26 • “Everyone has the right to education.’ • “Education shall be directed to the full development of human personality and to strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.” • “It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, peoples, racial or religious groups…”
Presentation Purpose This presentation will provide participants with experiential and practical applications that enable educators to bridge existing gaps in cross cultural interaction with ethnically and racially diverse student groups in Stetson University. • Questions to be Answered • What is Culturally Responsive Teaching? • Why is Cultural Competence necessary in the delivery of educational services? • What Cross Cultural values should drive educational and learning practices? • Which cultural competence issues and strategies are research based? • What are the benefits to be derived from the use of a Cultural Assessment regimen by educational professionals? 8
Methodology • This session will be conducted through the use of active didactic information and diverse interactive processes. • There will be a major emphasis on the practical application of the content to the faculty’s realities in higher education settings. 9
Cultural Competence Paradigm Shift (Changing our Cultural Perspectives) BUILDING PEACE, HARMONY, APPRECIATION, RESPECT, UNDERSTANDING FOR CULTURAL/ETHNIC DIVERSITY 10
Cultural Paradigm Shift • 1948 - U.N. Declaration of Human Rights • 1960s – Civil Rights. Cultural Sensitivity (T Groups) • 1970s – Women’s Rights 1972: (Amendment EEOC) • 1980 – Human Rights (Carter) • 1990 – Global Rights, Multicultural Education, Cultural Diversity • 2000 – Cultural Competence & CRT Focus • Beyond Sensitivity • Beyond Awareness • Beyond Understanding • Today! It is doing, thinking and feeling culturally connected, habitually, and most of all, feeling culturally empowered that matters. 11
Acquiring Cultural Competence +(CRT) The Journey… • Starts with the recognition/awareness of one’s own Biases/Prejudices.(Gary Howard,2006) • Decision to become less Ethnocentric but rather more Bicultural – acceptance of at least one outside culture.(De Anda,1984) • Grows with knowledge and acceptance of three or more culture (Becoming Multicultural).(Gay,2000) • Enhanced with sustained cross cultural contact(s) of OPENNESS (Cultural Competence and Proficiency). • (Randy Lindsey, et al,2006) • Actualized through the acquisition of cross cultural skills based on substantive cross cultural encounters that leads to cultural proficiency and empowerment (see Banks, 2007). 12
THE CULTURAL COMPETENCE CONTINUUM Positive * Cultural Empowerment Cultural Proficiency Cultural Competence Cultural Pre-Competence Cultural Blindness *Cultural Empowerment added by Coggins (2006) Cultural Incapacity Negative Cultural Destructiveness (Cross 2002 13
Why CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE TEACHING Is Needed Cognition is Shaped by Cultural Ideas/Information. “When an individual fails to teach or learn their history and culture sooner or later their history and culture will be forgotten and the individual or group will be rendered nameless and faceless.” (Carter G. Woodson, 1926) Key: Relevant culture specific and reinforcing information is crucial in cross cultural communication. We should also put a face on the cultures in our learning environments. Closing the Cultural GAP will require Educators who: Think systematically about their practice and learn from experiences and, “exemplify the virtues they seek to inspire in students: curiosity, tolerance, honesty, fairness, respect for diversity, and appreciation of cultural differences and, examine their practice, seek to expand their repertoire of skills, deepen their knowledge and adapt their teaching to new research and theories.” (NEA, 2004)
Exercise 1: Development of Culturally Responsive Educators National Education Association Standards (2004) said that effective educators and schools demonstrate: “Awareness of the influence of context and culture on behavior” “Exemplify the virtues of appreciation and respect for the individual’s cultural, religious, and racialdifferences and appreciation of the group’culturaldifferences” (NEA, 2004). Exercise: Discussion on the difference between tolerance vs. appreciation? We need to move to a level of appreciation! What is that difference? Please write your response below. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Exercise 2: Culture Culture represents the histories, attitudes, behaviors, languages, values, beliefs and uniqueness, which distinguish each racial or sub-cultural group in a society. Each of us has a historical heritage and a contemporary heritage that comprise our present culture. Exercise: Please define in your own words the term of culture and identify 2 values that are expressed in your definition. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Understanding Diverse Cultures • TWO TYPES OF CULTURE • Material Culture = Surface Culture • Immaterial Culture = Deep Culture • Material = Surface Culture This specifically represents the external and observable processes, which we see as part of the composite of one’s culture. Some examples of this material culture are: • Artifacts • Language • Dress • Behaviors • Color • Food • Songs • Others: (explore)
Understanding Diverse Cultures • Immaterial = Deep Culture -The areas we do not see • This specifically represents the internal or intrinsic processes, which we cannot see. The oral culture requires cultural translators. Some examples of this immaterial culture are: • Myths • Folklore • Stories • Feelings • Values • Oral Culture • Spiritualism • Messages Behind the Values • Others: (explore)
What is Cultural Competence? • Cultural Competence refers to the ability of an individual to interact effectively with people of various cultures. • In order to do this, a teacher must have an awareness of their own culture, an attitude towards cultural differences, knowledge of different cultural practices/views, as well as cross cultural skills. • In effect, a Culturally Competent person must have the ability to see “beyond the tip of the iceberg” and understand other cultures in a much greater depth. (Geneva Gay & Carl Grant,2000)
Culture • Central to learning. • Beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people. • Shapes the thinking process in groups and individuals as well as an vital part in communication and receiving information.
Understanding the Florida Educational Goals and Laws in MCE F.S 1003.42(2002) • The Declaration of Independence • Republican Form of Government • U.S. Constitution • Flag Education, Display and Flag Salute • Civil Government • History of Holocaust (1933-1945) • History of African Americans • Study of Hispanic Contributions to the United States • Study of Women’s Contributions • Character Development • Education for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) FS 1011.62 • Accomplished Practices Diversity: Uses teaching and learning strategies that reflect each student’s culture, learning styles, special needs and socio-economic background. FL Statute 1003.42, (2002)
What is Cultural Competence? Research-based Definitions in Cultural Competence
Definition of Cultural Competence • Most definitions of cultural competence use terms to describe an increased cultural awareness, knowledge, and change in attitude. Other authors take the definition of cultural competence further, describing it as a process, rather than an endpoint. For example: • Weneger (1999) discusses the need for a lifelong commitment to a journey of increasing cultural understanding. • Meleis (1999) stresses the need to actively seek cultural experiences that expand one’s own cultural worldview. Additionally, • Campinha-Bacote (2000) includes the educator’s ability to effectively work within the cultural context of a student as the practical outcome of cultural competence. Effectively working within the student’s cultural context requires a developmental process for the professional.
Definition of Cultural Competence • “The ability to relate and communicate effectively when individuals involved in the interaction do not share the same culture, ethnicity, language, or other salient variables” Based on Hains, Lynch, and Winton’s (1997). • Basic cultural competence occurs when organizations and practitioners respect differences, engage in ongoing cultural self-assessment, expand their cultural knowledge and skills, and adapt services to fit the community’s culture, situation, and perceived needs (Harvey and Rauch, 1997).
Research on Cultural Competence Coggins (2000) The habit of exhibiting the appropriate behaviors with respect to the diverse cultural ethnic and racial student population. Habit is used to indicate the automatic responsive actions of the educator based on personal knowledge and the individual’s cues and preferences. Thus, cultural competence is a process where the practitioner automatically exhibits cultural diversity awareness, culturally Competent Behaviors, and Cultural Sensitivity, all of which are integrated into the Cultural Assessment of the student.(American Journal of Health Studies:21(4)2006 .p9.; CDC (2006). Key words are: • Habit • Exhibiting • Automatic • Cultural Diversity Awareness • Culturally Competent Behaviors • Cultural Sensitivity • Cultural Assessment
Research in Support Thus, Ruby Payne, Irvine (1990), Erickson (1987), Au and Kawakami (1991), Asante (1998) and Banks,2007,2010 all argued that their research and experiences conclude that “only when teachers understand the cultural and historical background of students can they comprehend and react positively to minority students while enhancing their academic achievement.”
Cultural Competence Beyond Sensitivity and Awareness
Culturally Responsive Teaching
The Culturally Responsive School “Teachers and school leaders must develop a shared vision of the culturally and linguistically responsive school and teacher.” “Approaching a student's education in these culturally and linguistically responsive ways—rather than emphasizing deficits—has the potential to truly engage all students in learning, both in college and beyond.” Villegas, Ana M. and Lucas, Tamara (Mar. 2007). Responding to Changing Demographics: The Culturally Responsive Teacher. Educational Leadership, Vol. 64, Number 6. (pgs. 28-33.) http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/mar07/vol64/num06/The_Culturally_Responsive_Teacher.aspx
Culture and Its Impact on Academic Achievement Culture is the glue that enables an individual to make sense of the world. It is the frame of reference for our intentions, behaviors and impact and influence on others. 31 31
Culturally Responsive Teaching Means • Integrating cultural content that enhances achievement for all • “Students are more likely to master essential reading writing and computational skills when the teacher uses content that deals with significant diverse, human history and cultural events, especially the history and contemporary contributions of their ethnic group.” (Banks, 2007,p. 28) (Howard, 2006 p.2)
Exercise 5: Five Foundations to CRT Your strategy: As an educator to build trust is: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Five strategies for sustaining a culturally competent school Phase 1: Building Trust Proposition: • 90% of US College and Public School teachers are white, middle class, English speaking, Received degree in predominantly white college (Gay, Dingus and Jackson, 2003) • No experiential and educational background prepare teacher for their student’s diversity (Ladson-Billings, 2002; Vaurus, 2002) 33
Exercise 6: Engaging Personal Culture Your Strategy: As an educator to “engage personal culture that positively impacts on student motivation and performance, I will do the following ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Phase II: Engaging Personal Culture Proposition: Educator’s need to build their cultural competence i.e. “Their ability to form and model effective cross cultural relationships across racial/ethnic differences” (Howard, 2006, Coggins, 2005).Help students to develop: • Feeling of belonging • Trust in people around them, • Belief that teachers value their intellectual competence impacts in student motivation and performance (Aronson and Slede, 2005) 34
Ex 6: Social Dominance/White Privilege Phase III: Confronting Social Dominance/Social Justice (White Privilege) Proposition: Systems of white privilege and preference create enclaves of exclusivity in colleges/schools. Some demographics are served well. Other languish in limitations, mediocrity and failure (Howard, 2006, Banks, 2003, Gay, 2004, Hirsh, 2005, Peggy McIntosh, 1988). Could your college/school show clear and convincing evidence of equitable participation of ethnic minorities in all aspects of University life, etc. Your strategy: As an educator, I would implement the following strategy: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 35
Exercise 6: Transforming Instruction • Phase IV: Transforming Instructional Practices Proposition: It is essential that schools shift the instructional strategies to meet the increasing numbers and diverse learning needs of students by instituting CRT (Culturally Responsive Teaching). CRT in no way avoids having high expectations for all students (Gay, 2000, Ladson-Billings, 1996, McKinley, 2005, Shade, Kelly and Oberg, 1997, Howard, 2006, Coggins, 2005) 36
Exercise 6: Transforming Instruction Transforming Instructional Practices Your strategy: As an Educator, I would “transform my instructional practices,” in the following ways: ____________________________________________________________________________________ 37
Exercise 6: The Entire College/School Your strategy: As an educator, how would you engage the Entire College/School Community? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Phase V: Engaging the entire School Community Proposition: Changing demographics have profound implications for all levels and functions of College life. To create a welcoming and equitable environment for diverse students and their families, school leaders must engage the entire college/school community (Howard, 2006, Banks, 2003, Coggins, 2002). 38
Cultural Responsive Teaching! What is it? • Children whose language and culture align closely to that of the school are advantaged in the learning process. Those that feel devalued or unrecognized become alienated and disengaged from the learning process.(Gay 2000) • Culturally Responsive Teaching does not focus on stereotypes of the culture, such as food and art. It is based on ways of communicating and learning that are familiar to the student, along with themes that are empowering to them. (Banks, 2007) • Culturally Responsive Teaching requires that teachers interpret their students' behaviors within the cultural context of the student. They know the cultures in their classrooms, and reflect on the impact of this cultural knowledge.
What is Culturally Responsive Teaching? Gay (2000) defines culturally responsive teaching as using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and effective for them; it teaches to and through the strengths of the students.
Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) Seeks to maximize learning opportunities, teachers gain knowledge of the cultures represented in their classrooms and translate this knowledge into instructional practices.
Six (6) Culturally Responsive Teaching are… Information from the “In-Time” website at www.intime.uni.edu
Six Essential Characteristics Culturally Responsive Teaching is: 1. Validating 2. Comprehensive 3. Multidimensional 4. Empowering 5. Transformative 6. Emancipatory
Culturally Responsive Teaching • A pedagogy that provides equal access to education for all students of diverse cultures which recognizes, responds to and celebrates these cultures. • Students’ cultures are recognized as important and referenced in all facets of learning experiences.
Culturally Responsive Teaching is…Validating • Gay (2000) defines culturally responsive teaching as using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and effective for them; it teaches to and through the strengths of these students. • . When we teach with the intention of Florida Law, Statute 1003.42, we validate all of our students by teaching them about a wide variety of cultures. • Validation comes by embracing what students have to share about their cultures. Information from the “In-Time” website at www.intime.uni.edu
Culturally Responsive Teaching is Validating It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic groups, both as legacies that affect students' dispositions, attitudes, and approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal curriculum. It teaches students to know and praise their own and each others' cultural heritages. It incorporates multicultural information, resources, and materials in all the subjects and skills routinely taught in schools. (Banks,2008,2009)
Culturally responsive teaching is… Comprehensive • Ladson-Billings (1992) explains that culturally responsive teachers develop intellectual, social, emotional, and political learning by "using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes" (p. 382). • Hollins (2006) - education designed for racially diverse students incorporates "culturally mediated cognition, culturally appropriate social situations for learning, and culturally valued knowledge in curriculum content" (p. 13). • Culturally responsive teachers realize not only the importance of academic achievement, but also the maintaining of cultural identity and heritage (Gay, 2000). I
Culturally Responsive Teaching is…Multidimensional • Multidimensional culturally responsive teaching involves many things: curriculum content, learning context, classroom climate, student-teacher relationships, instructional techniques, and performance assessments. • Teachers from various disciplines (language arts, science, social studies, music) may collaborate in teaching a single cultural concept, such as protest. Students can also participate actively in their own cultural presentations (Gay, 2000).