Chapter 4 – Managing in a Global Environment • Three global perspectives • Regional trading alliances • Types of global organizations • How organizations go global • Exporting, importing, licensing, franchising • Strategic alliances, joint ventures, foreign subsidiaries • GLOBE framework for assessing cultures • Challenges of doing business in global world
Quiz: Who Owns What? • Ben and Gerry’s ice Cream is owned by a company based in: • Mexico, Saudi Arabia, UK, or US? • The Bic Pen company is based in: • Japan, UK, US, or France? • Skippy peanut butter is a product of a company based in: • US, Canada, Veneduela, UK? • The parent company of Braun electric shavers is located in: • Switzerland, Germany, US, or Japan? • PowerBar nutrition energy bars are products of a company based in: • Brazil, Switzerland, US, or Germany? • The company that markets Lipton tea is based in: • China, UK, Japan, US? • Dr. Pepper and 7-up are products of a company based in: • US, Japan, Canada, UK?
Company Non-U.S. Income as Percentage of Total Alfac Exxon Manpower Colgate-Palmolive Coca-Cola Gillette Mobil CPC International Avon Products IBM Citicorp Digital Equipment Texaco Hewlett Packard 84.3 77.4 68.8 68.4 68.3 68.0 67.6 64.4 64.0 62.3 62.3 61.5 55.9 54.1 Selected Companies Deriving 50% or More of Revenues from Non-U.S. Operations (in 1997) Table 4-1
Examples of Regional Trading Agreements • The European Union (EU) • Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Finland, and Sweden • Currency = the Euro • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) • Eliminated barriers to free trade (tariffs, import licensing requirements, and customs user fees) • United States, Canada, and Mexico • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) • Trading alliance of 10 Southeast Asian nations
European Union Countries Exhibit 4.3
ASEAN Members Source:Based on J. McClenahen and T. Clark, “ASEAN at Work,” IW. May 19, 1997, p. 42. Exhibit 4.4
Adopting a Global Perspective • Ethnocentric Attitude • The parochialistic belief that the best work approaches and practices are those of the home country. • Polycentric Attitude • The view that the managers in the host country know the best work approaches and practices for running their business. • Geocentric Attitude • A world-oriented view that focuses on using the best approaches and people from around the globe.
Different Types of Global Organizations • Multinational Corporation (MNC) • A firm which maintains operations in multiple countries but manages the operations from a base in the home country. • Transnational Corporation (TNC) • A firm that maintains operations in several countries but decentralizes management to the local country. • Borderless Organization • A firm that has eliminated structural divisions that impose artificial geographic barriers and is organized along business lines.
How Organizations Go Global Exhibit 4.5
Other Forms of Globalization • Strategic Alliances • Partnerships between and organization and a foreign company in which both share resources and knowledge in developing new products or building new production facilities. • Joint Venture • A specific type of strategic alliance in which the partners agree to form a separate, independent organization for some business purpose • Foreign Subsidiary • Wholly independent organization – separate and independent
Managing in a Global Environment – Difficult Because… • Different legal environments • Different economic systems • Different monetary and financial factors • Different cultures! (next slide)
National Cultures are Very Strong • National Culture • Is the values and attitudes shared by individuals from a specific country that shape their behavior and their beliefs about what is important. • May have more influence on an organization than the organization culture.
The GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) Framework for Assessing Cultures • Assertiveness • Future orientation • Gender differentiation • Uncertainty avoidance • Power distance • Individualism/collectivism • In-group collectivism • Performance orientation • Humane orientation
What Are Americans Like? Americans are very informal. Americans are direct. Americans are competitive. Americans are achievers. Americans are independent and individualistic. Americans are questioners. Americans dislike silence. Americans value punctuality. Americans value cleanliness. Sources:Based on M. Ernest (ed.), Predeparture Orientation Handbook: For Foreign Students and Scholars Planning to Study in the United States (Washington, DC: U.S. Information Agency, Bureau of Cultural Affairs, 1984), pp. 103–05; A. Bennett, “American Culture Is Often a Puzzle for Foreign Managers in the U.S.,” Wall Street Journal, February 12, 1986, p. 29; “Don’t Think Our Way’s the Only Way,” The Pryor Report, February 1988, p. 9; and B.J. Wattenberg, “The Attitudes behind American Exceptionalism,” U.S. News & World Report, August 7, 1989, p. 25. Exhibit 4.6
Video - Nidek • How did Nidek go global? • Ethnocentric, polycentric, or geocentric attitude? • What evidence of: • Differences between cultures • Hybrids culture