Session-17-23. Pooja patnaik. Facility Layout. Facility layout can be defined as the process by which the placement of departments, workgroups within departments, workstations, machines, and stock-holding points within a facility are determined This process requires the following inputs:
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Facility Layout Facility layout can be defined as the process by which the placement of departments, workgroups within departments, workstations, machines, and stock-holding points within a facility are determined This process requires the following inputs: • Specification of objectives of the system in terms of output and flexibility • Estimation of product or service demand on the system • Processing requirements in terms of number of operations and amount of flow between departments and work centers • Space requirements for the elements in the layout • Space availability within the facility itself
Need of layout decision and redesign • Need for layout decisions : • It helps to determine long term efficiency • It establishes company’s competitive priorities in regard to capacity, processes flexibility. • It helps the organization to achieve strategic advantage that supports differentiation, low cost, fast response • Need for Redesign: • in-efficient operation • Accidents, healthhazards and low safety. • changes in product design/service design • Introduction to new products/services. • Changes in volume of output or product mix changes • Changes in method, processes or equipment • Low employee morale.
Objective Of layout: Higher space utilization Improved flow of material, information and people Improved employee morale and working conditions Improved production capacity. Reduce material handling cost. Reduce health hazards To allow ease of maintenance Improve productivity. Higher flexibility
Factors influencing layout Material Worker Machinery Product Types of industry Location Managerial Policies
Principles of Layout The Principle of Minimum Travel Principle of Sequence Principle of Usage Principle of Compactness Principle of Safety and Satisfaction Principle of Flexibility Principle of Minimum Investment
Types of layout- a) Process Layout • Process layout or functional layout or job shop layout-Machines grouped by process they perform. These machines include lathe, drilling, milling etc. • Eg: Maruti Service Station. • Process layout is commonly found in service set ups like bank, hospitals, post offices
Types of layout- b) Product Layout • Product layout or line processing layout or flow-line layout- Linear arrangement of workstations to produce a specific product • The production line is often called the assembly line. The assembly line has a mechanized moving platform which moves at regular intervals.
Types of layoutc) Fixed Position Layout Fixed position layout or static layout-Used in projects where the product cannot be moved thus equipment ,labor, resources are brought to the site basically skilled people are required.
Comparison between product layout and process layout • Product Layout • Sequential arrangement of machines • Continuous, mass production basically assembly • Product is Standardized made to stock • Demand is stable and volume is high • Inventory low in process and high finished goods • Avoidance of bottleneck • Early detection of badly produced items. • Process layout • Functional grouping of machines • Intermittent, job shop, batch production, mainly fabrication. • product is varied and made to order • demand is fluctuating and volume is low • Inventory high in process and low finished goods • greater flexibility in production • Full utilization of the plant
Cellular Layout and FMS Machines are grouped into cells where the cells performs like a product layout or process layout. Each cell in CM layout is formed to produce single part family Advantage: low WIP inventories, reduced material handling cost, simplified production planning, improved visual control, increased operator responsibility. Disadvantages: Reduced utilization of the machines, Duplicate pieces of equipment may be needed
Service Layout • Goal--maximize net profit per square foot of floor space • Services capes • Ambient Conditions • Spatial Layout and Functionality • Signs, Symbols
Layout Tools and Techniques • Plant layout template is a scaled representation of a physical object in a layout. Templates • Operations Sequence Analysis Operations sequence analysis helps arrange departments graphically analyzing the layout problem. Line balancing is the study that nearly equally divides the work to be done among the workers and minimizes the number of employees required to complete a project.
Criteria for Selection and Design of Layouts • Material handling cost and worker effectiveness are the two criteria used for selecting layout design. • The various methods used for selecting the best layout among several alternatives layouts are • Travel Chart Method • Load-Distance Analysis Method • Systematic Layout Planning
Block diagramming Create load summary chart Calculate composite (two way) movements Develop trial layouts minimizing number of nonadjacent loads
Project Assignments Make the layout of a floor of the main CUTM building. Identify and label various rooms and halls in order to improve the efficiency in terms of walking distance. Brainstorm the various modifications suggested in class and prepare an action plan for implementation.