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Alexander Stein, Saeid Niazi and Lakshmi Sankar School of Aerospace Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Supported by the U.S. Army Research Office Under the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) on Intelligent Turbine Engines

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computational analysis of centrifugal compressor surge control using air injection

Alexander Stein, Saeid Niazi and Lakshmi Sankar

School of Aerospace Engineering

Georgia Institute of Technology

Supported by the U.S. Army Research Office Under the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) on Intelligent Turbine Engines

High Performance Computer Time was Provided by the Major Shared Resource Center of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC MSRC).

Computational Analysis of Centrifugal Compressor Surge Control Using Air Injection

outline of presentation
Outline of Presentation
  • Objectives and motivation
  • Background of compressor control
  • Introduction of numerical tools
  • Configuration and validation results
    • DLR high-speed centrifugal compressor (DLRCC)
  • Off-design results without control
    • Surge analysis
  • Off-design results with air injection control
    • Steady jets
    • Pulsed jets
  • Conclusions and recommendations
motivation and objectives
Motivation and Objectives

Lines of Constant

Efficiency

Desired Extension of Operating Range

Lines of Constant

Rotational Speed

Total Pressure Rise

Surge Limit

Choke Limit

Flow Rate

  • Use CFD to explore and understand compressor stall and surge
  • Develop and test control strategies (air injection) for centrifugal compressors
  • Apply CFD to compare low-speed and high-speed configurations
motivation and objectives4
Motivation and Objectives

Compressor instabilities can cause fatigue and damage to entire engine

what is surge

Mean

Operating Point

Pressure Rise

Peak

Performance

Pressure Rise

Limit Cycle

Oscillations

Flow Rate

Flow Rate

Period of

Mild Surge Cycle

Period of Deep Surge Cycle

Flow Rate

Flow Rate

Flow Reversal

Time

Time

What is Surge?

Mild Surge

Deep Surge

how to alleviate surge

Bleed Valves

Movable Plenum Walls

Guide Vanes

Air-Injection

How to Alleviate Surge
  • Diffuser Bleed Valves
    • Pinsley, Greitzer, Epstein (MIT)
    • Prasad, Neumeier, Haddad (GT)
  • Movable Plenum Wall
    • Gysling, Greitzer, Epstein (MIT)
  • Guide Vanes
    • Dussourd (Ingersoll-Rand Research Inc.)
  • Air Injection
    • Murray (CalTech)
    • Weigl, Paduano, Bright (NASA Glenn)
    • Fleeter, Lawless (Purdue)
numerical formulation flow solver





ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ







q

dV

E

i

F

j

G

k

n

dS

R

i

S

j

T

k

n

dS

t



Numerical Formulation (Flow Solver)

Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in finite volume

representation:

  • q is the state vector.
  • E, F, and G are the inviscid fluxes (3rd order accurate). R, S, and T are the viscous fluxes (2nd order accurate).
  • A one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model is used.
  • Code can handle multiple computational blocks and rotor-stator-interaction.
boundary conditions flow solver
Boundary Conditions (Flow Solver)

Periodic boundary

at clearance gap

Solid wall boundary

at impeller blades

Solid wall boundary

at compressor casing

Inflow

boundary

Periodic

boundary

at diffuser

Solid wall boundary

at compressor hub

Outflow boundary

(coupling with plenum)

Periodic boundary

at compressor inlet

outflow boundary condition flow solver

Plenum chamber

  • up(x,y,z) = 0
  • pp(x,y,z) = const.
  • isentropy

.

mt

ap, Vp

Outflow boundary

.

mc

Outflow Boundary Condition (Flow Solver)

Conservation of mass and isentropic expression for speed of sound:

dlr high speed centrifugal compressor

40cm

DLR High-Speed Centrifugal Compressor
  • Designed and tested by DLR
  • High pressure ratio
  • AGARD test case
dlr high speed centrifugal compressor11
DLR High-Speed Centrifugal Compressor
  • 24 Main blades
  • 30 Backsweep
  • Grid 141 x49 x 33 (230,000 nodes)
  • A grid sensitivity study was done with up to 1.8 Million nodes.
  • Design Conditions:
    • 22,360 RPM
    • Mass flow = 4.0 kg/s
    • Total pressure ratio = 4.7
    • Adiab. efficiency = 83%
    • Exit tip speed = 468 m/s
    • Inlet Mrel = 0.92
validation results design conditions static pressure along shroud
Validation Results (Design Conditions) Static Pressure Along Shroud
  • Excellent agreement between CFD and experiment
  • Results indicate grid insensitivity => Baseline Grid is used subsequently
off design results performance characteristic map

D

C

B

A

Off-Design ResultsPerformance Characteristic Map

Computational and experimental data are within 5%

Fluctuations at 3.2 kg/sec are 23 times larger than at 4.6 kg/sec

off design results high speed performance characteristic map

B: 3.8 kg/sec

A: 4.6 kg/sec

20

20

10

10

Pressure Rise Fluctuations (%)

Pressure Rise Fluctuations (%)

0

0

-10

-10

-20

-20

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

Mass Flow Fluctuations (%)

Mass Flow Fluctuations (%)

C: 3.4 kg/sec

D: 3.2 kg/sec

20

20

10

10

Pressure Rise Fluctuations (%)

Pressure Rise Fluctuations (%)

0

0

-10

-10

-20

-20

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

Mass Flow Fluctuations (%)

Mass Flow Fluctuations (%)

Off-Design Results (High-Speed) Performance Characteristic Map

Large limit cycle oscillations develop near surge line

off design results high speed mass flow fluctuations
Off-Design Results (High-Speed) Mass Flow Fluctuations

Mild surge cycles develop

Surge amplitude grows to 60% of mean flow rate

Surge frequency = 90 Hz

(1/100 of blade passing frequency)

air injection setup

Casing

0.04RInlet

Impeller

Compressor Casing

RInlet

Compressor Face

Rotation Axis

Injected Fluid Sheet

Yaw Angle b

Main Flow

Air Injection Setup

Systematic study:

injection rate and yaw angle were identified as the most sensitive parameters.

Related work: Rolls Royce,

Cal Tech, NASA Glenn /MIT,

air injection results steady jets different yaw angles 3 injected mass flow rate
Air Injection Results (Steady Jets)Different Yaw Angles, 3% Injected Mass Flow Rate

Optimum yaw angle of 7.5deg. yields best result

Mass Flow (kg/sec)

Rotor Revolutions, wt/2p

Reduction in Surge Amplitude (%)

Positive yaw angle is measured in opposite direction of impeller rotation

Yaw Angle (Degree)

air injection results parametric study

Optimum:

Surge amplitude/main flow = 8 %

Injected flow/main flow = 3.2 %

Yaw angle = 7.5 degrees

Air Injection Results (Parametric Study)
  • An optimum yaw angle exists.
  • A reasonable amount (~3%) of injected air is sufficient to suppress surge.
air injection results pulsed jets

With Phase Angle Adjustments

Without Phase Angle Adjustments

Air Injection Results (Pulsed Jets)
  • Surge fluctuations decrease as long as the injection phase was lagged 180 deg. relative to the flow => suggests feedback control
  • reduction in external air requirements by 50% (compared to steady jets)

Nondim. Surge Fluctuations (%)

Rotor Revolutions, wt/2p

air injection results pulsed jets20
Air Injection Results (Pulsed Jets)
  • 1.5% injected mass is sufficient to suppress surge
  • High-frequency jets (winj = 4wsurge) perform better than low-frequency jets (winj = wsurge)

Nondim. Surge Fluctuations (%)

Rotor Revolutions, wt/2p

air injection results pulsed jets vorticity magnitudes near leading edge tip

Numerical

Probe

Jet

Air Injection Results (Pulsed Jets)Vorticity Magnitudes Near Leading Edge Tip
  • Increased amounts of mixing enhance the momentum transfer from the injected fluid to the low-kinetic energy particles in the separation zone
air injection results pulsed jets shear stresses near leading edge tip

Area of Interest

Air Injection Results (Pulsed Jets)Shear Stresses Near Leading Edge Tip
  • High-frequency actuation leads to significantly larger shear stress levels.
  • Produce smaller but intense turbulent eddies.
  • Enhances the mixing at small length scales.

Jet

conclusions
Conclusions
  • A Viscous flow solver has been developed to
    • obtain a detailed understanding of instabilities in centrifugal compressors.
    • determine fluid dynamic factors that lead to stall onset.
  • Steady jets are effective means of controlling surge:
    • Alter local incidence angles and suppress boundary layer separation.
    • Yawed jets are more effective than parallel jets.
    • An optimum yaw angle exists for each configuration.
  • Pulsed jets yield additional performance enhancements:
    • Lead to a reduction in external air requirements.
    • Jets pulsed at higher frequencies perform better than low-frequency jets due to enhanced mixing at small length scales.
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Perform studies that link air injection rates to surge amplitude via a feedback control law.
  • Use flow solver to analyze and optimize other control strategies, e.g. inlet guide vanes, synthetic jets, casing treatments.
  • Employ multi-passage flow simulations to study rotating stall and appropriate control strategies.
  • Study inflow distortion and its effects on stall inception.
  • Improve turbulence modeling of current generation turbomachinery solvers. Analyze the feasibility of LES methods.