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Ming and Manchu Dynasties. World History - Libertyville High School. Founding of Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Ethnic Han Chinese overthrew Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty in 1368 First Emperor = Hongwu (r. 1368-1398) focused on centralizing power to himself & recovery from Mongol rule

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ming and manchu dynasties

Ming and Manchu Dynasties

World History - Libertyville High School

founding of ming dynasty 1368 1644
Founding of Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
  • Ethnic Han Chinese overthrew Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty in 1368
  • First Emperor = Hongwu (r. 1368-1398) focused on centralizing power to himself & recovery from Mongol rule
    • Rebuilt irrigation systems
    • Developed courier system throughout empire
    • Est. secret police to spy, suppress dissent
  • Courier routes became major trade, agricultural corridors that spurred internal economy
early ming dynasty
Early Ming Dynasty
  • Hongwu also ordered maintenance and expansion of Great Wall
    • Stone facing, towers added
    • Wall lengthened
  • Standing army of over one million soldiers established
ming government
Ming Government
  • Capital moved to Beijing in 1403 under Emperor Yongle, the grandson of Hongwu
  • Built the “Forbidden City” (residence of emperor and family)
  • Ordered construction and exploration of Treasure Fleets
treasure fleet voyages
Treasure Fleet Voyages
  • Massive fleets commissioned to embark on exploration, trade, diplomatic missions
    • Ships were massive
    • Fleets had up to 37,000 sailors, soldiers, diplomats
  • Zhenghe (1371-1433), trusted advisor to Emperor, put in charge
  • Made a total of seven voyages, as far away as East African coastline
    • Re-established trade contacts
    • Also demanded tribute from states visited
decline and fall of ming
Decline and Fall of Ming
  • Emperor Wanli (1572-1620)
    • Began as capable emperor
    • Became tired of politics, war after major conflict from 1595-1603 vs. Korea, Japan (China won)
    • Withdrew to Forbidden City
    • Relied on eunuchs to run government
      • Civil service lost power relative to imperial eunuchs
      • Eunuchs effectively became rulers of China
      • Corruption, abuses increased
closing of ming china to outsiders
“Closing” of Ming China to Outsiders
  • Ming became pre-occupied with land threats from North, West and Korea and Japanese to Northeast
  • Saw selves as superior to rest of world
  • Edicts of emperors limited foreigners and their imports to one Chinese city, Canton
  • Continued export trade, but that trade dwindled in 1700s
fall of ming
Fall of Ming
  • Economic disaster
    • Ming had converted to silver as coinage, replacing paper money
    • Ming got lots of silver through international trade
      • Sources included Japan, South America, Africa, India
    • Disruption of international silver supplies in 1630s caused inflation, debasement of currency
  • Famine & drought occurred (loss of MOH)
  • Invasion by Manchu (northern nomads) overthrew Ming in 1644
manchu qing dynasty 1644 1912
Manchu (Qing) Dynasty (1644-1912)
  • Last dynasty of Chinese history
    • At height, Qing dynasty covered 5 million square miles with over 200 million citizens
  • Manchu – Jurchen nomads – seized control of China and completed conquest by 1683
  • Continued most policies of traditional Chinese government
    • Civil service bureaucracy
    • Maintenance of Great Wall
qing dynasty
Qing Dynasty
  • Pre-occupied with controlling huge empire
  • Biggest challenges
    • Exploding population put strain on food supply
    • Economic stagnation
    • Internal unrest (religious, social causes)
    • Dealing with natural disasters (1887 Yellow River flood = 900k-2 million dead)
  • All of these factors, together, kept Qing emperors focused inward during 17-1800s
foreign devils and qing
“Foreign Devils” and Qing
  • 19th century saw Qing engage with rest of the world
    • Europeans were militarily and technologically superior
    • Europeans forced their way into Chinese markets
    • After 1867, Japanese advanced technologically past the Chinese