Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) • Last native imperial dynasty • Rose out of rebellion against the Mongols • Kept some Mongol traditions – provincial structure, hereditary professional categories, Mongol calendar and ultimately Beijing as the capital • Less technological development than during Song dynasty – loss of knowledge of high quality bronze and steel • High cost of metal and wood • Revival of civil service exam rewarded scholarship and administration • Lack of pressure from technologically sophisticated enemies • Fear of technology transfer • Korea and Japan surpassed China in technological innovation
Some achievements: Naval expeditions began in 1405-1433 (Zheng He) New capital at Nanjing Revived examination system Ming porcelain Literature + philosophy Forbidden City (Yongle) Agricultural Revolution Crop rotation Irrigation pumps Nanjing was reforested with 50 million trees Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Zheng He’s Expeditions • Series of expeditions to reestablish trade links with the Middle East and bring Southeast Asia under Chinese control via tributary relationships • Gavin Menzies theorizes that China Discovered America • This era of exploration and expansionism slowed considerably with the death of the Yongle emperor in 1424 – renewed Mongol threat, Japanese piracy • Ming Treasure Fleet • Each ship 400’ long & 160’ wide
The Forbidden City • The Forbidden City in Beijing, China is the largest palace complex in the world. It covers 183 acres and comprises 9,999 buildings.
Commercial Revolution • Urbanization • Extensive trade with Europe but restricted the Europeans to coastal cities • Traded actively with the Portuguese, the Dutch, and the Japanese, who traded silver for Chinese silks and porcelain
Collapse of the Ming • Little Ice age – temperature drop between 1645-1700 - agricultural distress, migration, disease • Inflation in prices and taxes caused by New World silver hurt peasants • Inefficiency in urban industrial sector – ceramics • Cost of defending Korea against Japanese invasion • Military threat – Mongol; Japanese piracy • Manchu entered Beijing to help restore order following internal rebellion – Qing dynasty was established in 1644
Qing (1644-1911) Policies • Manchus were 2% of the overall population • Qing rulers sought both to maintain their ethnic distinctiveness • Manchus were to cultivate horseback riding and archery skills and were discouraged to intermarry—while at the same time cultivating the image of a model Confucian monarch • Jurchen, Mongols, Koreans, and Han Chinese—who joined the Manchu forces early all came to be known as "Manchu" and were accorded special privileges/obligations in the Qing Empire. • Separate residential quarters in major cities • Privileged access to official positions.
Kangxi Period (1622-1722) • Manchu-Mongol-Chinese rule – assisted Manchurian princes • Confucianism as philosophy of government • Manchu obligated to military service • Increased number of Chinese in government • Highly educated and dedicated to administration • Eliminated corruption – intelligence network • Increased efficiency of revenue collection
Kangxi Period (1622-1722) • Expanded territory – defeated Mongols and Russians • Fostered education and scientific inquiry – Jesuits at court hired to teach young Chinese and Manchu • Population growth – introduction of American crops • Protected Catholic missionary work in the empire – allowed ancestral worship • Returned Chinese land • Reduced taxes
Qianlong Period (1735-1796) • Expanded territory • Love affair with palace guard led to government corruption • Conflict with the Europeans – Christianity • Franciscans and Dominicans told the Pope that the Jesuits were promoting Confucianism • Pope issued edicts condemning Confucianism – led emperor to ban Christians from China • Conflict with the Europeans – “Canton system” • Gunboat diplomacy of Portuguese – labeled Europeans “Ocean Devils” • Government control of trade – required tributary relationship
Qing Dynasty (Manchus) (1644-1911) • Conflict with Europe: “Ocean Devils” • 17th-18th centuries • 1793: English refused to perform rituals of obeisance to the emperor • Relations continued to deteriorate • Both sides think they were economically and culturally superior • Eventually: Opium Wars (which China lost) and the Treaty of Nanjing (British got Hong Kong plus trading rights)