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Microcontroller Fundamentals & Programming. Data Movement Instructions. Data Movement Instructions. LOAD Instructions e.g. LDAA , LDAB , LDD , LDX , LDY STORE Instructions e.g. STAA , STAB , STD , STX , STY TRANSFER Instructions and e.g. TAB , TBA EXCHANGE Instructions

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Data Movement Instructions

  • LOAD Instructions

e.g. LDAA , LDAB , LDD , LDX , LDY

  • STORE Instructions

e.g. STAA , STAB , STD , STX , STY

  • TRANSFER Instructions and

e.g. TAB , TBA

  • EXCHANGE Instructions

e.g. XGDX , XGDY

slide3

22

33

44

I/O

LOAD Instructions

Load Instructions :

Example:

LDAA , LDAB , LDD ,

LDX , LDY

Instructions load CPU registers with values from memory or I/O.

68HC11

Memory

CPU

Registers

Data Flows

slide4

Sample of Load Instructions (1)

Addressing

Instructions Modes Description

LDAA #$30 IMM ;ACCA loaded with $30 (hex)

CPU

ACCA

I/O

$30

Data Flows

slide5

$22

$33

$44

$002E

$002F

$0030

Sample of Load Instructions (2)

Addressing

Instructions Modes Description

LDAA $30 DIR ;ACCA loaded with contents

;from memory address $30

Memory Content

Memory Address

CPU

ACCA

$44

Data Flows

slide6

$56

$78

$90

$9000

$9001

$9002

Sample of Load Instructions (3)

Addressing

Instructions Modes Description

LDD $9000 EXT ;ACCD loaded with contents

;from memory address $9000

;& $9001

Memory Content

Memory Address

CPU

ACCA

ACCB

$56

$78

$44

ACCD

slide7

$22

$33

$44

$902E

$902F

$9030

Sample of Load Instructions (4)

Addressing

Instructions Modes Description

LDAA $10,X IND ;ACCA loaded with contents

;from memory address (offset

;+ X)

Memory Content

Memory Address

CPU

IND X

9020

ACCA

$44

Data Flows

slide8

STORE Instructions

Store Instructions :

Example:

STAA , STAB , STD , STX , STY

- Instructions store or place contents of any CPU registers to a memory or I/O location.

68HC11

Memory

CPU

Registers

I/O

Data Flows

slide9

$22

$33

$44

$000F

$0010

$0011

Sample of Store Instructions (1)

Addressing

Instructions Modes Description

STAA $10 DIR ; Place contents of ACCA into

; memory location ($0010).

Memory Content

Memory Address

CPU

ACCA

$90

$90

$44

Data Flows

slide10

$22

$33

$44

$0FFF

$1000

$1001

Sample of Store Instructions (2)

Addressing

Instructions Modes Description

STAA $1000 EXT ; Place contents of ACCA into

; memory location ($1000).

Memory Content

Memory Address

CPU

ACCA

$E0

$E0

$44

Data Flows

slide11

$22

$33

$44

$005F

$0060

$0061

Sample of Store Instructions (3)

Addressing

Instructions Modes Description

STX $60 DIR ; Place contents of IX into

; memory location $0060 and

; $0061

Memory Content

Memory Address

CPU

IX Register

$12

$34

$1234

$44

Data Flows

slide12

$22

$33

$44

$801E

$801F

$8020

Sample of Store Instructions (4)

Addressing

Instructions Modes Description

STAA $20,Y IND ; Place contents of ACCA into

; memory location $20 + Y

CPU

Memory Content

Memory Address

IY

$8000

$44

$E0

$E0

Data Flows

ACCA

slide13

TRANSFER Instructions

68HC11

  • Transfer Instructions:
  • Example: TAB , TBA
  • TAB => Transfer ACCA to ACCB.
  • Instruction TAB will move (or copy) the contents of ACCA to ACCB.
  • If contents ACCA = $38 & ACCB = $9F
  • Executing TAB, will result in ACCA = ACCB = $38

TBA

ACCA

ACCB

TAB

slide14

$42

$8E

TRANSFER Instructions

Example:

TBA = Transfer (or copy) contents of ACCB to ACCA.

If contents of ACCA = $42 & ACCB = $8E

68HC11

TBA

$8E

ACCB

ACCA

slide15

EXCHANGE Instructions

68HC11

  • Exchange Instructions
  • Examples: XGDX , XGDY
  • XGDX instruction will transfer the contents of ACCD to Index-X (IX) register and the contents of IX will transfer to ACCD.

ACCD

IX

slide16

EXCHANGE Instructions

Example:

XGDY :Instruction will transfer the contents of ACCD to Index-Y (IY) register and the contents of IY will transfer to ACCD.

68HC11

XGDY

$1234

$5678

ACCD

IY

slide17

Load, Transfer and Exchange Instructions

Examples:

LDAA #$59

LDAB #$2A

TAB

LDX #$4567

XGDX

LDY #$1122

XGDY

; Load ACCA with data $59

; Load ACCB with data $2A

; Transfer contents of ACCA to ACCB

; Load IX register with data $4567

; Exchange contents of IX and ACCD

; Load IY with data $1122

; Exchange contents of IY and ACCD

slide18

Load, Transfer and Exchange Instructions

Examples:

LDAA #$59

LDAB #$2A

TAB

LDX #$4567

XGDX

LDY #$1122

XGDY

A

B

A, B

$2A

$59

$11

$67

$22

$59

$45

D

$4567

$1122

$5959

$592A

IX

$5959

$4567

IY

$1122

$4567