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Potato Breeding: Methods, Genetic Constraints, and Disease and Pest Resistances PowerPoint Presentation
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Potato Breeding: Methods, Genetic Constraints, and Disease and Pest Resistances

Potato Breeding: Methods, Genetic Constraints, and Disease and Pest Resistances

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Potato Breeding: Methods, Genetic Constraints, and Disease and Pest Resistances

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  1. Potato Breeding: Methods, Genetic Constraints, and Disease and Pest Resistances Rich Novy

  2. Overview of Presentation • History of Potato • Potato Breeding Methodology • Germplasm Resources • Genetic Constraints • Breeding for Resistance at Aberdeen • Fungal-Like: Late Blight • Viruses • Potato Leafroll Virus (PLRV) • Potato Virus Y (PVY) • Insect: Potato Psyllid • Concluding Remarks

  3. Transport of Potato from theNew World to the Old World

  4. Market Classes: Modern Day Russets Dual-Purpose Single Use Long Whites Processing, some Fresh Round Whites Processing into Chips Reds Specialties e.g., Pigmented Flesh

  5. Potato Breeding Seedling Tuber Production

  6. 10-11 years New Varieties • Seed Increase Over Years • Replicated Field Evaluations—Yield & Disease • Storage, Sensory & Processing Evaluations • Commercial Evaluations, Input, & Interest • Development of Management Profiles Why 10-11 years?

  7. Germplasm from genetic studies, hybridization strategies Aberdeen, ID, Prosser, WA, Corvallis, OR Parents from the Plant Introduction Station at Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin Wild species germplasm from Prosser, WA Greenhouse Genetic engineered germplasm Prosser, WA, Albany, CA, Moscow, ID, Corvallis, OR Commercial varieties Parents from other breeders Crosses Aberdeen, ID, Prosser, WA Corvallis, OR Year 1 Greenhouse Greenhouse 70,000 TPS seedling tuber production at Corvallis, OROR 140,000 TPS seedling tuber production at Aberdeen, ID Year 2 Exchange of seeds and tubers with other States Field Field Tubers from seedlings. Planted at Powell Butte and Klamath Falls, OR Tubers from disease resistant and specialty crosses. Prosser, WA Tubers from seedlings. Planted at Aberdeen and Tetonia, ID Year 3 Development of a Potato Variety – PNW Program eye-indexing 700-1,200 clones planted at Powell Butte and Hermiston and Klamath Falls, OR Disease trials in Corvallis, Aberdeen, Kimberly, Hermiston, Prosser, Rexburg 2,500 clones planted at Aberdeen, and Tetonia, ID Year 4 . . . Selection field, storage, processing, and disease at 8-10 locations Breeder seed increases Aberdeen, Tetonia, Powell Butte Yrs 4-5 Lab and Greenhouses Tri-State Trials (OR, ID, WA) Limited Generation seed production OSU & UI Cultural management studies & Industry trials Yrs 5-8 Breeder seed increases Powell Butte PVMI Promotion and Marketing Western Regional Trials 8-10 locations (OR,ID,WA,CA,TX,CO) Yrs 9-11 PVMI Promotion & Marketing Limited generation seed production Seed Growers Name and Release New Variety Yrs 12-15

  8. Traits Evaluated Over Years Agronomic Total and marketable yield, stand count, vine maturity, and tuber size distribution Tuber Attributes Appearance, skin/flesh, shape, dry matter, processing and culinary qualities, nutrients, storage Stress and defect resistance Water and nutrient stress, internal defects, external defects Disease and Pest resistance Fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens; insect and nematode

  9. Germplasm Resources • 104 Potato Species • 100 “Wild” • 4 cultivated • Wide geographic range • Most 2n=2x=24 • Cultivated Potato = 4x • Hybridization • Haploids • Chromosome doubling • 2n gametes • Somatic hybridization

  10. S. microdontum

  11. S. etuberosum

  12. Species Utilization in Breeding • Wild species represented in varieties: • S. demissum: LB, PLRV • S. acaule: Viruses, nematode, frost • S. chacoense: Viruses, insects • S. spegazzinii: Nematodes • S. stoloniferum: PVY and PVA • S. vernei: Nematodes, high starch • Additional 9 species: In a few varieties • Primitive Cultivated: adg, stn, phu

  13. Summary: Genetic Resources • Potato rich in genetic resources • Increasing pressure on Solanum habitats • Importance of collection and preservation • Potato Germplasm Collection, Sturgeon Bay, WI • Few species widely used in enhancement • Specific industry and consumer expectations • Undesirable traits along with desirable • More pre-breeding necessary • Increased interest in host plant resistances • Reduced pesticides = reduced production costs • Benefits to consumers and the environment

  14. Breeding for Resistance • Very good crop for Irish • 1.5M to 9M from 1760-1840 • Late Blight (Phytophthorainfestans) • 1845-1847 Great Potato Famine • >1.0 million died • 1.5-2.0 million emigrated next decade • Reduced diversity • Surviving varieties: Partial resistance • Influx of new germplasm from South America (tbr) • More formal “controlled hybridizations” • Beginning of “Breeding for Resistance”

  15. Late Blight

  16. Defender • Released in 2004 • Primarily Processing • High Yield & Specific Gravity • High Vitamin C • Bulks Rapidly • Good for Organic Production • Resistant to Late Blight • Foliage • Tuber-Very • Also Resistant to: • Tuber early blight, PVX, net necrosis • Moderate Resistance: • Early dying, pink rot, corky ringspot, PVYO, and soft rot Weaknesses: Blackspot, Scab, Greening, Shorter Dormancy American J. of Potato Research (2006) 83:9-19

  17. Late Blight Screening Trial Bonners Ferry, Idaho-2004 -No Fungicides -Late Blight Inoculated Courtesy of Dr. Jeff Miller Late Blight Susceptible: Dead Vines Defender

  18. Defender Grown in Bangladesh

  19. Palisade Russet (A97066-42LB) • Dual-Purpose Russet • Strengths • Good Yield • High % No. 1’s • Late Blight Resistance • Good Processor for LB • Low % of Sugar Ends • Weaknesses • Susceptible to Blackspot Bruise • Very High Specific Gravity

  20. Palisade Russet, Foliar and Tuber Late Blight DataCorvallis, OR

  21. Palisade Russet Disease Responses

  22. PVY & PLRV • Most important viruses of potato • Reduce crop vigor and yield • Especially with secondary infection • Reduction in Tuber Quality • PVY: Tuber necrotic strains • PLRV: Net necrosis • No resistance to either virus in the most widely grown potato cultivars in North America

  23. Somatic Hybrids (E + TxB) 1st Generation Etb 6-21-3 A05379-211 4th Generation 2nd Generation

  24. Molecular Markers • RFLP Markers • Used for localization • PLRV resistance linked with TG443 – Chrom. 4 • Gillen & Novy. 2007. Euphytica. 155:403-415 • PCR Markers-Rlretb • More closely linked • 13.6 cM • Kelly et al. 2009. Mol. Breeding. 23: 489-500 • Current Research • Dr. Joe Kuhl • 3.8 cM fromRlretb • BAC Library

  25. DNA Markers for PLRV Resistance GemStar Russet S. etuberosum AO1687-3 (R) AO1687-2 (S) 6-21-3 1000 bp 850 bp 650 bp 500 bp 400 bp 300 bp

  26. Insect Resistance-Psyllid Progeny from etb-ber somatic hybrid • Green Peach Aphid • Reduced fecundity • Growth inhibition • Decreased nymph survival • Novy et al., 2002. AJPR 79:9-18 • Colorado Potato Beetle • Reduced field defoliation • Wireworm • Reduction in tuber damage • Comparable/better than Mocap • Potato Psyllid? • Possible based on exhibited diversity of insect resistances • Psyllid Yellows: Reduction in yield and tuber quality • Insect vector of CandidatusLiberibacterpsyllaurous (solanacearum) • Vector resistance could aid in the control of Zebra Chip (ZC) disease • Butler et al., 2011. Crop Protection 30: 1233-1238 John Trumble, UC-Riverside Juan Alvarez, DuPont

  27. Concluding RemarksBreeding & Genetics • Potato rich in genetic resources • Few species widely used in enhancement • Specific industry and consumer expectations • Undesirable traits along with desirable • More pre-breeding necessary • Increased interest in host plant resistances • Reduced pesticides = reduced production costs • Benefits to consumers and the environment • Increasing pressure on Solanum habitats • Importance of collection and preservation • Potato Germplasm Collection, Sturgeon Bay, WI

  28. Variety Development

  29. The New Potato Marketplace

  30. Variety Development History • Private breeding era (1840-1910) Burbank, Irish Cobbler, White Rose • Early public breeding era (1910-1950) LaSoda, Pontiac, Katahdin, Kennebec, • Modern era (1950-2000) Russet Norkotah, Shepody, Atlantic, Snowden, Ranger Russet • Plant Variety Protection Era (2000-present)

  31. Market Perceptions • Historically all potatoes were used for fresh consumption • Three types of potatoes Russets – good for baking, frying Round whites – good for baking, boiling Reds – summer potatoes, good for boiling

  32. Market DiversificationCurrent • Russets Fresh market for baking • Russets French fry processing • Russets Fresh market for baking (Dual Purpose)  French fry processing • Long whites Fresh market for baking • Long whites  French fry processing

  33. Market DiversificationCurrent • Round whites Fresh market for baking, boiling • Round whites Potato chip processing • Reds Fresh market for boiling • Specialty Misc. fresh market uses • Specialty Misc. processing uses

  34. Successful Varieties Important characteristics • High yield • Wide adaptation • Good consumer quality

  35. Selection Criteria • Market acceptance • Market delivery (maturity, storability) • Economic benefit (better/different than current varieties) Productiveness Adaptation to different environments Tuber quality Resistance to physiological problems Resistance to pests Production efficiency

  36. Russet Burbank

  37. Russet Burbank Description and usage: Long russet tubers, the standard for fresh and processing russets Yield + Grade - - - Specific gravity o Overall fresh quality + Overall processing quality + Storability +++ Adaptability - Disease resistance - Other: Long dormancy, susceptible to many stress problems

  38. Russet Norkotah Description and usage: Long russet tubers, used for early and storage fresh market Yield - - Grade ++ Specific gravity - - Overall fresh quality o Overall processing quality - - - Storability + Adaptability o Disease resistance - - - (PVY, Vert.) Other: Early maturing, very susceptible to early dying, off-flavor

  39. Ranger Russet

  40. Ranger Russet Description and usage: Long russet tubers, utilized primarily for french fry processing Yield ++ Grade + Specific gravity ++ Overall fresh quality o Overall processing quality ++ Storability + Adaptability ++ Disease resistance ++ Other: Very susceptible to blackspot bruise, resistant to most field diseases

  41. Umatilla Russet

  42. Umatilla Russet Description and usage: Long russet tubers, primarily used or french fry processing Yield + Grade + Specific gravity ++ Overall fresh quality o Overall processing quality ++ Storability o Adaptability o Disease resistance + Other: Produces pear-shaped tubers, at times has small size

  43. Alturas

  44. Alturas Description and usage: Oblong, lightly russeted tubers, very high yield potential Yield +++ Grade ++ Specific gravity ++ Overall fresh quality - Overall processing quality ++ Storability 0 Adaptability + Disease resistance +++ Other: Bred for dehydration processing, resistant to most field diseases

  45. Tri-State Potato Varieties Teton Russet Alpine Russet Clearwater Russet

  46. Classic Russet

  47. Dark Red Norland