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Age of Exploration. Reasons for Exploration. 1 . To find a sea route to the spices of Asia. . In the 1400s there was no refrigeration. . To prevent their meat from spoiling they preserved and dried it with salt. They also used a lot of spices to cover up the taste.

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slide3

Reasons for Exploration

1. To find a sea route to the spices of Asia.

  • In the 1400s there was no refrigeration.
  • To prevent their meat from spoiling they preserved and dried it with salt.
  • They also used a lot of spices to cover up the taste.
  • These spices were only found in Asia.
  • It was dangerous & difficult to travel by land, so Europeans began looking for a sea route to Asia
slide5

2. To find Gold & Silver

European rulers fought many wars which were very expensive.

They needed to find gold & silver to pay for these wars.

Mercantilism: the belief that a country’s power depends on its wealth.

They believed Asia was full of gold, silver and precious stones.

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3. Claim Land

* European rulers also wanted to claim as much land as they could to expand their empires.

* They wanted to take all of the natural resources and use the people as slaves

4. Spread Christianity and stop Islam from spreading.

* Christians also wanted to stop the spread of Islam & extend Christianity.

which of the following was not a reason for exploration
Which of the following was NOT a reason for exploration?
  • To find a sea route to Asia
  • To find gold & silver
  • To learn from native cultures
  • To expand Christianity

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[MC Any]

[MC All]

technology of exploration
Technology of Exploration
  • Ancient navigators stayed close to the land
  • As sailors traveled farther they needed more advanced technology.
  • Hourglasses were used to time their travels but were not accurate.
  • The compass allowed them to chart their direction.
  • The astrolabe determined the altitude of the sun and stars but was difficult to use.
compass activity
Compass Activity!!!
  • Supplies:
    • 1 Sewing needle
    • 1 magnet
    • 1 bowl of water
    • 1 small piece of paper
  • What to do???
    • Stroke the dull end of a needle across the magnet 60 times, going in the same direction.
    • Now place a small piece of paper on top of the water in the center of the bowl.
    • Set the needle on top of the paper and gently move the paper to cause it to spin slightly
    • When the needle and paper have stopped moving the sharp end of the needle is pointing north.
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Early Explorers

Portugal was the first to send explorers.

Prince Henry the Navigator

* Never a sailor himself, he brought together cartographers, astronomers & mathematicians to study navigation.

which country was the first to send explorers
Which country was the first to send explorers?
  • Spain
  • England
  • France
  • Portugal

[Default]

[MC Any]

[MC All]

slide14

Early Explorers

Bartholomew Dias

* Discovered the tip of Africa – proved ships could reach Asia.

vasco da gama
Vasco da Gama
  • Sailed from Portugal to India in 1497.
  • Rounded the Cape of Good Hope and stopped at trading centers on the EAST coast of Africa.
  • Landed at Calicuit in India, there he found Hindus and Muslims trading fine silk, porcelain, and spices.
  • Tried to get them to trade, but they would not.
  • Became a hero in Portugal because he marked a trade route to the riches of India
early explorers
Early Explorers
  • Funded by King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella of Spain.
  • Tries to reach India by sailing west
  • Came to the Bahamas 1st, then Haiti & Cuba

Columbus

slide20

Amerigo Vespucci suggested Columbus had discovered a new world.

Spain & Portugal both wanted to claim it.

Spain believed the all new land in that area belonged to them since Columbus came before Vespucci.

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Portugal was convinced the new land was theirs because Amerigo Vespucci was the first to realize it was in fact NEW land.

which two countries fought over control of the new world
Which two countries fought over control of the New World?
  • Italy & Spain
  • Portugal & Italy
  • England & Spain
  • Spain & Portugal

[Default]

[MC Any]

[MC All]

slide25
Ferdinand Magellan
  • Sailed for Spain
  • Circumnavigated the world
  • Proved:
    • 1. World was round
    • Larger than believed
    • 3. Oceans were connected
    • 4. Lands discovered by Columbus were NOT connected to Asia.
which of the following explorers came to america first
Which of the following explorers came to America first?
  • Columbus
  • Vespucci
  • Dias
  • Prince Henry

[Default]

[MC Any]

[MC All]

which explorer was the first to find the southern tip of africa
Which explorer was the first to find the southern tip of Africa?
  • Columbus
  • Vespucci
  • Dias
  • Magellan

[Default]

[MC Any]

[MC All]

which of the following explorers led the first successful circumnavigation of the globe
Which of the following explorers led the first successful circumnavigation of the globe?
  • Columbus
  • Magellan
  • Dias
  • Vespucci

[Default]

[MC Any]

[MC All]

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OVERSEAS EMPIRES

Portugal

  • Portugal’s main interest was in Africa & Asia.
  • They were also more interested in trade rather then colonization.
  • They wanted to control the Indian Ocean trade.
  • Once they did they built many trading post.
portugal
Portugal
  • They colonized Brazil because of its profitable sugarcane plantations.
  • Due to lack of labor, African slaves were brought in to work the plantations.
slide32

OVERSEAS EMPIRES

Spain

Spanish conquistadors came to America to:

1. Serve God & king

2. Convert natives

3. Grow rich

Cortez

– landed in Mexico – took over Aztecs – ruled Mexico

slide33

OVERSEAS EMPIRES

Spain

Pizarro invaded Incas in Peru

spanish empire
Spanish Empire
  • By the 1600s, Spain had control of much of North & South America as well as islands in the West Indies.
  • Viceroys ruled over their possessions.
  • Under the encomienda system monarchs granted landowners the right to use natives as slaves.
which country was interested in trade
Which country was interested in TRADE?
  • Spain
  • Portugal
  • Italy
  • South America

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[MC Any]

[MC All]

colonies of the netherlands
Colonies of the Netherlands
  • In the 1500s the Dutch won their independence from Spain and by the 1600s they were in their “golden age.”
  • They had few natural resources but superior sailing technology.
  • They controlled the Spice Islands and other ports in the Indian Ocean.
  • Henry Hudson, an English explorer, also claimed land for the Dutch in North America.
  • The Dutch East India Company was established to govern their many colonies.
slide38

OVERSEAS EMPIRES

French & English Colonies

* French wanted quick profits from trade where the English wanted to establish colonies that they could trade with for natural resources and use for farm land.

* French were looking for a northwest passage from America to Asia.

france
France
  • Jacques Cartier was sent to try and find a passageway. He claimed much of eastern Canada for France.
  • In 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec, the first permenent French settlement in North America.
  • Missionaries Marquette and Joliet explored the Mississippi River Valley.
  • de la Salle claimed the entire region for France.
english colonies
English Colonies
  • Interested in overseas trade, the English East India company was created.
  • They also began to establish ports in Jamaica and the east coast of North America.
slide42

OVERSEAS EMPIRES

English established Jamestown, the 1st settlement, in Virginia.

Pilgrims traveled to Massachusetts for religious freedom. They established Plymouth.

slide43

* Triangular Trade: trade route where ships traveled from Europe, to Africa, then to the New World carrying slaves, raw materials and finished products.

Middle Passage: Part of the triangular trade – it was the slaves journey from Africa to the Americas.

slide45

Triangular Trade

Triangular Trade

commercial revolution
Commercial Revolution
  • The Age of Exploration brought many changes.
  • Nations began to compete for markets and trade goods.
  • New ways of doing business were created.
  • Traders were “sponsored” by investors.
  • Banking families began loaning money and charging interest.
slide48

Joint-stock companies were created to give people the opportunity to invest in exploration and trade.

  • The theory of mercantilism expanded.
  • European countries tried to increase their bullion, gold & silver.
  • Nations wanted a favorable balance of trade.
columbian exchange
Columbian Exchange
  • As populations grew, so did the demand for goods & services.
  • This led to more exploration & trade.
  • A world wide exchange was created.