Cloud computing and tourism information systems. 周宗清，博士 尼亚加拉大学（ Niagara University） 电子商务研究中心 主任 尼亚加拉大学酒店和旅游管理学 院 终 身教 授 电子邮箱： email@example.com. What is Cloud Computing?.
Cloud computing and tourism information systems 周宗清，博士 尼亚加拉大学（Niagara University） 电子商务研究中心 主任 尼亚加拉大学酒店和旅游管理学院 终身教授 电子邮箱：firstname.lastname@example.org
What is Cloud Computing? 出家门之后，老是在琢磨：燃气到底关好没有？等公交车时，又总想，这车还得多久才来？相信大多数人都有过这样的经历。但若身处智慧城市，上面的担心都属多余。你可以打开手机，点击一下，屏幕上就会出现你家厨房的实时画面，要真的没有关燃气阀，你也可以在手机上进行操作，将其关闭；等公交更不是问题，点开手机相应程序，立马显示出下一趟公交车的位置，并能计算出到你等的这一站还需要多长时间。想想看，这样的生活很美好吧！ 正是看到信息化发展即将带领我们步入生活、工作全面智能化的智慧城市，Cloud China 2014就把目光锁定在了智慧城市，向大家诠释云计算和智慧城市间密不可分的关系。智慧城市的建设，离不开云计算的大力支持，可以将其喻为智慧城市的“司令部”。大家想想，你发送一个请求，我查看一个视频，数据量之大可想而知。各种终端的存储和处理能力毕竟有限，如果没有云计算，这些海量数据的存储和运算就将面临巨大的困难。正是通过云计算平台，才得以实现海量数据的存储与运算，智慧的大脑才得以转动，让我们的生活更为美好。不久的将来，政务云、医疗云、交通云等都将落地，届时，我们的智慧城市将是云的世界，智慧城市过的是云上的日子。
What is Cloud Computing? • Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.
A Historical Perspective • “Cloud computing” concepts date back to the 1950s when large-scale mainframes were made available to schools and corporations:The mainframe’s colossal hardware infrastructure was installed in what could literally be called a “server room” (since the room would generally only be able to hold a single mainframe), and multiple users were able to access the mainframe via “dumb terminals” – stations whose sole function was to facilitate access tothe mainframes. • In the 1970s, travel agents started to use “dumb terminals” to access GDS such as Sabre.
A Historical Perspective: In the 1970s, IBM released an operating system called VM that allowed admins on their mainframe systems to have multiple virtual systems, or “Virtual Machines” (VMs) on a single physical node
A Historical Perspective: “Virtualization” became a technology driver, since the cost of “servers” were so expensive.
A Historical Perspective: • Later, when server price went down, organizations started running into a different kind of problem: One server isn’t enough to provide the resources they need. • The market interest changed from “splitting up servers” to “combining servers”
A Historical Perspective: Hence, the concept of “cloud computing” was born online: By installing and configuring a piece of software called a hypervisor across multiple physical nodes, a system would present all of the environment’s resources as though those resources were in a single physical node
A Historical Perspective: In these cloud computing environments, it became easy add resources to the “cloud”: Just add another server to the rack and configure it to become part of the bigger system.
A Historical Perspective: On March 1, 2011, IBM announced the IBM SmartCloud framework to support Smarter Planet. Among the various components of the Smarter Computing foundation, cloud computing is a critical piece.
Summary • Cloud computing is a concept used to describe a variety of computing concepts that involve a large number of computers connected through a real-time communication network such as WAN and the Internet. • The popularity of the term can be attributed to its use in marketing by ASP (Application Service Providers) such as IBM to sell hosted services that run client server software on a remote location. • The word cloud was used as a metaphor for the Internet
What is in the cloud model? • This cloud model is composed of: • Five essential characteristics • Three service models • Four deployment models
Essential Characteristics: On-demand self-service. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service provider. Broad network access. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets. laptops, and workstations).
Resource pooling. The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, and network bandwidth.
Rapid elasticity. Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases automatically, to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time.
Measured service. Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported, providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.
Top 10 Myths Of Cloud Computing • Myth 1: • You still don’t know what the cloud is • Yes, you do, most likely. Some of the cloud technologies that the majority of businesses have used at some stage include Dropbox, Office 365 and Facebook and LinkedIn. And if you have had experience of using these systems and their storage services, then you will know that they are easy to use and often increase productivity and help to reduce costs. • Myth 2: • I should make the move to reduce costs • If you are a business then you will likely be able to save money, depending on the current and future requirements of your business, but you need to understand that it’s not all about cutting costs. There are many other benefits that should not be ignored, including reliability, scalability, security and remote access. • Myth 3: • The public cloud is the cheapest means of obtaining IT services • This may seem like a good idea because you are meant to pay for what you use and it’s seen as being easy and inexpensive to set up. But what if we take a closer look? When resources are needed frequently other models can be more appropriate. This includes shared resources through a private cloud, which could be more cost-effective since your core requirements, such as security, performance, and availability, will be implemented
Top 10 Myths Of Cloud Computing • Myth 4: • My critical applications and the cloud won’t mix • Businesses require more and more from their IT infrastructure in order to cover the development of their business models. They want to cut costs, be able to adjust their service levels and deliver applications at greater speeds. But what is to be done with applications critical to the running of a business? When choosing a cloud system it is essential that you outline your needs for transition and future developments. • Myth 5: • It’s unreliable and insecure • If the data isn’t stored on your PC then it’s at risk because of lack of security and reliability. But wait, no, in actual fact, if you lose that PC then it really is all the important data lost. But with cloud the data will be remotely accessible and protected by a service-level agreement, with strict security protocols in place to keep it secure. • Myth 6: • Productivity will be reduced • No, in actual fact, business owners are able to take advantage of advanced applications and servers, with support from experts who will maintain their data through the latest security and hardware. Data becomes accessible remotely and provides greater access capabilities, thus working to actually improve productivity.
Top 10 Myths Of Cloud Computing • Myth 7: • Virtualisation is the first step • Virtualisation can improve the utilisation of existing resources and provide greater flexibility. However, cloud computing has the potential to reduce overheads and improve infrastructure, providing the ability to reduce time-consuming tasks and automate workflows without taking this initial step. • Myth 8: • 100 per cent, all the time • Once you get the cloud there will be no worries and everything will run smoothly and there will be no downtime. But we all know technology and that it can never be relied upon entirely. With that in mind you need to make sure that there is a service-level agreement in place to cover the occurrence of any downtime. And, also, remember to structure the SLA to a level that makes most sense for your business. So, if a supplier guarantees 99 per cent uptime be aware that this could mean your system or application process is unavailable for several hours a month.
Top 10 Myths Of Cloud Computing • Myth 9: • The cloud is too complex • There are different types of systems out there and they have differing levels of complexity. There are models that simplify management and require little change of how you do things, while others offer more control and will lead to further change in application architecture. • Myth 10: • Security is the same for all cloud systems • Not necessarily. There are different types of systems and as a result the levels and types of security will differ. Just think about how businesses have to follow varied guidelines in order to handle their sensitive data. As a result a private system may seem like the best solution, but it still has vulnerabilities if there is an Internet connection. Insider attacks are also not to be ignored.
Issues of the Cloud • Reliability • Availability of services and data • Security, • Complexity • Costs • Regulations and legal issues • Performance • Migration • The lack of standards • Limited customization • Issues of privacy
England-based Thomas Cook Group plc is one of the world’s leading leisure travel groups with sales of £8.9 billion ($13.7 billion) and 22.5 million customers. It has 31,000 employees who work across six geographic segments in 21 countries around the world. In Oct. 2011, it signed a new ten-year contract with Accenture and a three-year extension to an existing ten-year deal, with both contracts relying on cloud-based technologies.
The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), has recently (March, 2012) signed an agreement with Microsoft to use cloud computing to develop tourism across the world. • According to Microsoft, this partnership will benefit 155 UNWTO member countries and the more than 400 affiliate members representing the private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations and local tourism authorities, by helping them apply cloud technologies to improve business efficiency and innovation.
MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL SELECTS CLOUD-BASED MICROS OPERA AS ITS NEXT-GENERATION PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ALL NORTH AMERICA PROPERTIES Columbia, MD – April 25, 2013—MICROS Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:MCRS), a leading provider of information technology solutions for the hospitality and retail industries, is pleased to announce that Marriott International has expanded its partnership with MICROS by selecting the hosted MICROS OPERA Property Management System (PMS) as the property management system (PMS) to be used in all Marriott brands worldwide. Under the new partnership agreement, Marriott will deploy MICROS hosted OPERA PMS.