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Utility Analysis and Site Selection. Are the HUD Incentives My Best Option?. Function of many factors - evaluate: Long-term capital equipment replacement needs Exceed available HUD capital funding? Timeline Level of need Level of resident occupancy, comfort, and cooperation

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are the hud incentives my best option
Are the HUD Incentives My Best Option?
  • Function of many factors - evaluate:
    • Long-term capital equipment replacement needs
      • Exceed available HUD capital funding?
      • Timeline
      • Level of need
    • Level of resident occupancy, comfort, and cooperation
    • Maintenance staffing and costs
      • REMEMBER - maintenance savings may be real, but can’t be used to determine cost-effectiveness of the project under HUD rules.
    • Management staffing
    • Consistent use of the facility
are the hud incentives my best option3
Are the HUD Incentives My Best Option?
  • Can an Efficiency Program Self-Fund?
    • High Consumption?
    • High Rates?
  • Can you “buy-down” the project using Modernization Funds for non-energy/water components?
  • Investigating these questions can save you from going down dead end path
  • REMEMBER - You must be able to re-pay a loan from savings!
utility analysis
Utility Analysis
  • Do this before issuing RFP!
  • Tracking consumption makes this easier
    • Software to help
      • Reports to help with HUD reporting requirements
      • Graphics to visualize information
    • Units of consumption, not just dollars
    • By apartment, building, meter
    • ESCo will want this data
    • Aids in management and maintenance as well
utility analysis5
Utility Analysis
  • Use your currently available data
  • Work with your utility to fill in gaps
  • Need tenant releases to get data on actual bills that are tenant paid
    • Provides means of ensuring allowances make tenant whole and conservation program savings aren’t borne on the back of the residents.
  • Directs measures and sites for consideration
utility analysis6
Utility Analysis
  • Resources for crunching the numbers
    • Consultants
    • Past audits
    • In-House staff
    • Tracking software
    • ESCOs???
      • You want this determination before issuing RFP
      • Much of the work on HAs end - gathering data
      • Beware of obligating yourself at this stage of the game - fee-for-service only?
  • How do your Sites Compare to Others?
    • Rough estimate
  • Weather Normalize
    • Heating Degree Days
    • Takes out climate as factor
  • Normalize for Square Footage
  • Common Measures
    • $/square foot
    • Btu/square foot/heating degree day
    • Gallons/day/resident
  • Btu/s.f./HDD normalizes for weather and for size of building
  • Still need to account for rates
    • 6 cents/kwh vs. 12 cents/kwh -> two times the pot of savings for a given amount of consumption.
  • Can help you ID best candidates within your portfolio
    • Phased RFP
    • May leave some out altogether
  • Don’t waste your time and the ESCo’s by pursuing sites that won’t yield a cost-effective, self-funding conservation program
evolution of selected sites through performance contracts
Evolution of Selected Sites through Performance Contracts
  • Developments are identified by the PHA in the RFP
    • Phased, with option to expand
    • Based on utility analysis, building use and capital needs
  • Measures are screened and proposed by ESCOs in the audit
    • 2 phase audit report
  • Proposed measures are evaluated by the PHA
  • Measure design & installation is performed by ESCO under an ESA
site selection for rfp
Site Selection for RFP
  • ID your desires and needs
  • Look at the realities of:
    • level of consumption
    • level of rates
    • cost of capital
    • occupancy rate
    • long-range plans for the site
    • other available funds
  • BE FLEXIBLE - Be open to the ESCOs suggestions during the bidding and audit processes
where to look for savings
Where to Look for Savings
  • In the Midwest, New England, and other heating climates, typical PHA Candidate Developments for Energy Performance Contracts have high historic utility consumption or cost patterns for
    • Heating
    • Domestic hot water production
    • Common area lighting & electric loads
    • Domestic water use
where to look for savings13
Where to Look for Savings
  • In the cooling climates, typical PHA Candidate Developments for Energy Performance Contracts have high historic utility consumption or cost patterns for
    • Domestic hot water production
    • Common area lighting & electric loads
    • Domestic water use
  • Cooling Savings
    • Normalizing for Cooling Degree Days not allowed by HUD
    • Issue - who pays the bill? Can HA recover cooling savings?
    • 24 CFR 965.506(e)
information to provide in an rfp
Information to Provide in an RFP
  • See “Sample Technical Section for RFP” in “Resource Guide”
  • Include, by building, meter or complex:
    • Utility monthly use and cost over three years
    • Name of facility
    • Number of dwelling units
    • Occupancy levels
    • Family or elderly residence
    • Rough description of construction and systems
best candidate types
Best Candidate Types
  • Master metered for all utilities, multiple buildings
    • Can do tenant paid, with waiver
    • Adds complications to savings calculations
  • Has not received modernization in over 10 years
basic site types to include
Basic Site Types to Include
  • 1940s vintage with central space heating/domestic hot water plants
  • All-electric high/mid-rises in climates with annual 5000+ HDDs and $0.08+ kWh
  • Newer vintage townhouse style, individual heat and DHW can be done
    • “1 year old buildings with 100 year old problems”
    • Base choice on results of utility analysis and rough estimate of cost of measure!
basic site types not to include
Basic Site Types NOT to Include
  • Scattered sites – single detached houses or duplexes in clusters of one to one dozen
    • Challenge is in getting consistent performance and documented savings at all houses
other factors to consider
Other Factors to Consider
  • Scheduled heating/cooling/DHW/distribution system replacement
  • Mechanical systems with high maintenance, operational costs
  • Necessary window replacements
    • Virtually never are cost-effective from energy-savings standpoint alone!
  • Equipment measures and/or appliances scheduled for replacement in PHA's Five Year CGP Plan
other factors to consider19
Other Factors to Consider
  • Developments expected to remain under PHA management for at least the next decade
  • Developments and measures with a rich savings stream supported by relatively low cost investments
  • “Bundling” opportunities for maximum leverage of capital improvements
  • Developments with central laundries:
    • Other criteria articulated by PHA personnel
audit phase
Audit Phase
  • Monthly utility use histories and account numbers; actual copies of bills important
  • Previously implemented energy-related modernization plans and dates of implementation
  • Previously completed energy audits and surveys
  • Capital needs assessment reports
audit phase21
Audit Phase

Require ESCO to:

1. Develop baseline for each utility, per HUD requirements

2. Perform end use disaggregation of utilties

3. Normalize data

4. Establish savings projections in relation to base years

5. Evaluate “in-pocket” savings vs. HUD savings

before any measures may be formally screened by the esco the esco must
Before Any Measures May Be Formally Screened by the ESCO, the ESCO Must:
  • Evaluate the quality of the data
  • “Clean” it
  • Analyze it by “End Use”

“End Use Disaggregation” must be performed by an energy engineer or conservation professional.

energy and or water baseline consumption
Energy and/or Water Baseline Consumption
  • The “Baseline” is the ESCO’s assessment of the pre-retrofit utility consumption and cost.
  • It must be approved by HUD.
    • Based on Rolling Base, and/or
    • Reviewed Utility Allowances
  • It provides the basis for:
    • ESCO savings projections and measure screening
    • Calculation and payment for actual savings achieved
water data for a client housing authority
Water Data for A Client Housing Authority

Four developments

1. Riverview – family development, 180 dwelling units in 45 quads, walk-ups

2. O’Brien Towers – elderly development, 275 dwelling units in one mid-rise building (six stories)

3. Pagnano Towers – elderly development, 156 dwelling units in one high-rise building (15 stories)

4. Drohan Apartments – elderly development, 40 units in one low-rise building (three stories)

utility data in pha s rfp included energy consumption and costs by site per month
Utility Data in PHA’s RFP included Energy Consumption and Costs, by Site, per Month

In Audit Phase, ESCo retrieved data directly from the utilities

  • Computer printouts containing monthly use and cost information
  • Paid data entry clerks to put utility information in Excel files
  • They were able to analyze the utility data and form the BASELINE
quincy water measures
Quincy Water Measures
  • Riverview – none
  • O’Brien – New water closets, new faucet aerators, & showerheads
  • Pagnano – New water closets, repair leaks, new faucet aerators, & showerheads
  • Drohan – New water closets, new faucet aerators, & showerheads
re cap of steps for utility analysis
Re-Cap of Steps for Utility Analysis
  • Gather readilyavailable utility data on consumption and cost on site-by-site basis
    • 3 years is best, and will be needed for the ESCo to establish baseline for HUD
  • Determine if gaps exist and impacts of these gaps
  • Work to gather remaining data if appropriate
  • Look at changes in occupancy, use or equipment during the period you’re evaluating
re cap of steps for utility analysis28
Re-Cap of Steps for Utility Analysis
  • Understand how your PHA is processing the utility bills and reporting the usage to HUD
    • make changes in tracking procedures if needed
  • Tabulate your gatheredutility data in total and on site-by-site basis:
    • Calculate portfolio-wide average
    • Calculate averages for each development
    • Compare the developments with the portfolio average and other benchmarks

This will help you to identify the outliers: family sites, elderly sites, high-rise vs. walk-ups