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Bioenergy from agriculture and bioenergy in Sweden

Bioenergy from agriculture and bioenergy in Sweden

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Bioenergy from agriculture and bioenergy in Sweden

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  1. Bioenergy from agriculture and bioenergy in Sweden Ola Palm

  2. Primary energy use in the world

  3. The era of fossil (oil) fuel?

  4. Which energy alternatives does Sweden have for the future? • Water – almost completed • Wind – potential, but regulatory limited • Sun – still expensive – transmission? • Wave – limited, needs development • Geo – limited geographically • Nuclear Power – politics and safety? • Carbon Captureand Storage – needs development and takes time • New technologies - ??? • Bioenergy - most countries has potential - known technique for conversion of energy - the only renewable source that could be used in excising coal combustion plants

  5. The forest totally dominate bioenergy Sweden: Agriculture 1 % of total bioenergy

  6. Forest as a source for bioenergy? • Forests in Great Brittan: natural reserves and “park landscape” • Forests in Eastern Europe: timber production • Forests in Germany: for paper production • Forests in southern Europe: deforestation, fires, erosion problems

  7. Total energy supplied to SwedenTWh year 2008 (totally 614 TWh)

  8. Use of biofuels, peat etc, in district heating, 1980–2008, TWh

  9. Use of biofuels, peat etc, in industry (including electricity generation), 1980–2008, TWh

  10. Bioenergy from Agriculture today in Sweden • About 3 % of the agricultural land area is used for bioenergy production (70 000 ha) • 1 – 1,5 TWh comes from agriculture, which is about 1 % of total bioenergy production in Sweden • The potential is estimated to about 20 TWh (of the total production of about 112 TWh)

  11. ? Totally 70 000 ha

  12. Straw • Swedish potential 7 TWh • Possible to store if < 18 % water content • Voluminous • Incinerated in bales or in cuts • High ash content • Low ash-melting point

  13. Salix • Swedish potential 4 TWh • Used today in about 25 plants – heat and electricity • The most developed system for Bioenergy from agriculture • Up to 20 % in-mixbut normally < 10 %

  14. Read Canadian grass (Phalarisarundinacea) • Swedish potential < 1 TWh • Could be grown under more could conditions than salix • Harvested in early spring • Voluminous bales and ash • Good incineration properties

  15. Grain • Normally a food and feed crop! • Swedish potential according to the Union of Swedish farmers (LRF) < 1 TWh • Easy to handle and incinerate • Low ash-melting point and high ash content

  16. Hemp • Swedish potential < 1 TWh • Less developed systems for harvest and handling • Expensive grains • To expensive energy!

  17. Bioenergy from agriculture • More development needed • Technologies for harvest, compaction, logistics • Incineration difficulties could be managed • Handling of the ash needs development • Knowledge and methods to get an even quality during production (understanding of how growing conditions will impacts on incineration properties) • Increased production • New types of contracts which will distribute risk better

  18. Bioenergy from agriculture – other services than climate and renewability • Employment • Complementary to food production • Independency and increasing self sufficiency • An option for many pore countries • An excellent sun capture 5 – 10 times better than traditional forest

  19. 5 scenarios bioenergy from agriculture year 2020 • 20 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions • 10 % renewable fuel • 50 % of used energy should be renewable Reference: agriculture 2020 with today's politics

  20. Environment • Reduction in both leaching and greenhouse gas emissions • Salix main change – 140 000 ha

  21. Renewable • Agriculture will supply 50 % of necessary increase to meet renewable energy target • Salix main change – 400 000 ha

  22. Mixing in • Mixing gasoline with ethanol • Agriculture will supply 50 % of necessary increase to meet renewable fuel target • Winter wheat production for ethanol (250 000 ha) – no change in land use

  23. Combination • Will meet both renewable and mixing in • 640 000 ha necessary for bioenergy production (of total 2 700 000 ha)

  24. Biogas • 200 000 ha will be used for lay production to biogas • Land close to cities will be used

  25. Bioenergy from agricultural land – reference and 5 scenarios

  26. Other effects