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Week 4. Today’s Topics. Miscue Analysis Fluency. Review of Procedures for RR/MA. Converse with your student. If child provides a text, jot down title, and ask child whether s/he has read it before, etc. If you select the text

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Today s topics
Today’s Topics

  • Miscue Analysis

  • Fluency

Review of procedures for rr ma
Review of Procedures for RR/MA

Converse with your student.

If child provides a text, jot down title, and ask child whether s/he has read it before, etc.

If you select the text

Introduce the book to the child and ask him/her to make some predictions

Try to ascertain child’s prior knowledge of topic, text

Ask permission to record

Record child reading

Okay to have child-initiated conversation about text

If doing MA, take anecdotal notes while child reads

Harry potter
Harry Potter

  • RR/MA


  • Analysis

Summary analysis sheet
Summary/Analysis Sheet

Harry Potter Reading (260 words)

Self-correction rate (sc/unacceptable miscues)

Tally errors: total errors - sc

Error & accuracy rates: (errors/total words) x 100

Do self-corrections of acceptable miscues count?

Some say yes, some say no

I say yes; it’s good to keep track of them

Caveats for interpretation:

Be careful of faulty assumptions (error/accuracy rate)

Listen to Evan’s retell: (CD)

Red flags with Evan’s Harry Potter reading

More considerations
More Considerations

  • When sharing notations with students, or discussing their reading, focus on strengths at the outset

  • When a child gets frustrated

    • Use an intervention (i.e., “try that again”)

    • Let’s try another text

    • Change the activity

  • If a child breezes through with few miscues

    • Move on to a more difficult text

    • Consider WHY she/he breezed through

      • Fluency?

      • Accurate word calling?

      • Text familiarity?

    • A retell may help you assess comprehension

Review student reading
Review student reading

  • Using your RR/MA from Don’t Let the Pigeon Drive the Bus do the following:

    • Discuss your annotations with your group

    • Discuss your completion of the analysis form

  • I will circulate to answer questions

What does it mean
What does it mean?

  • What does your student know?

  • What level of text is this for your student?

    • Independent 95-100%

    • Instructional 90-94%

    • Frustration 80-89%


Johnston discusses a few problems with retells:

It is not a realistic, everyday activity if both people read or saw the same text.

More able readers have an intuitive understanding of the testing situation, while less able readers do not (pragmatics!) and so may not perform as well

Students from non middle-class households may be familiar with different story structures than those common in middle class homes. This can impact retelling

See Johns & Lenski for ideas for retelling

See also packet 42-49

What do we know
What do we know?

  • What assessments have we done?

    • What do they tell us?

    • What do we need to know more about

  • Possible strategies/goals?

  • Assessment/Instruction cycle

  • Be sure to be completing the assessment sheet from the first day!

Discussion of reading rma
Discussion of Reading: RMA

Initial responses to RMA

In the packet article, the author talks about how Michael begins “revaluing” himself.

What does she mean?

How does this relate to our “big ideas” of becoming and identity?

What role did RMA play in this process?

Assessing reading fluency
Assessing Reading Fluency

Reading rate is only one part of fluency

Prosody: Pitch, Stress, Juncture,

Slow, labored reading can neg. impact comprehension.

Procedures for measuring reading rate (handout)

Can be done in conjunction with miscue analysis


Can also be done with silent reading, as long as you time the student’s reading, but you can’t calculate CWPM this way.

Multidimensional Fluency Scale

Exit slip
Exit slip

  • 3 ideas that you might consider trying with a students

  • 2 connections to the article/ discussion

  • 1 question you still have about using digital literacies/miscue analysis/running records with students

For thursday
For Thursday

  • Add to assessment chart

  • Add any big ideas to wiki

  • CW 6, 7,8 Complete Key Concepts Organizer while reading

  • Comprehension Article –on wiki

  • Continue working on tool kit-bring questions

Choice words
Choice Words

  • Using the Key Concepts Organizer that you filled out for the 3 chapters we will do the following:

    • Get into groups of 4

    • Discuss in your groups the key concepts that you wrote about; make connections across your groups

    • How do these ideas/concepts connect with what we’ve been discussing?

  • We will then come back to a large group discussion

Comprehension quiz
Comprehension Quiz

Take the quiz-

  • How did you do?

  • What did you do?

  • What does this tell us about comprehension?

    So what does this mean for comprehension instruction?

Exercise 1
Exercise #1

1. Grw 11. dlghtfl

2. Knw 12. Hnd

3. Nd 13. crd

4. Ws 14. rmn

5. Whn 15. ths

6. Ld 16. btwn

7. Grdn 17. hncfrth

8. Flwr 18. mst

9. t 19. knw

10. Spps 20. Tw

Taken from: Wilde, S. (2000). Miscue Analysis Made Easy: Building on Student Strengths. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

Exercise 2
Exercise #2

ll chldrn, xcpt n, grw p. thy sn knw tht thy wll grw p, nd th wy Wndy knw ws ths. N dy whn sh ws tw yrs ld sh ws plyng n a grdn, nd sh plckd nthr flwr nd rn wth t t thr mthr. I spps sh mst hv lkd rthr dlghtfl, fr Mrs. Drlng pt hr hnd t hr hrt nd crd, “h, why cn’t y rmn lk ths vr!” ths ws ll tht pssd btwn thm n th sbjct, bt hncfrth, Wndy knw th th, sh mst grw p. y lwys knw ftr y r tw. Tw s th begnnng f th nd.

Turn and talk
Turn and Talk

  • What do the previous exercises say about what happens in your “Reader Mind” as you read?

  • What do they say about comprehension instruction

  • Make a connection- What can you do to make sure your comprehension instruction gets to the Heart of Reading?


  • The process by which we read and get meaning from text

  • It is the heart of reading

  • It happens while we read and as a result of reading

  • Different types of texts require different comprehending strategies (Common Core stress reading of Informational Texts)

  • We also need to teach students how to think critically about texts. (Question, respond, challenge, connect)

What readers do
What Readers Do

  • Activate Prior Knowledge –Reader bring personality, present mood, and memories, to a text. Each person’s experience of a text almost as unique. What readers bring to a text affects their ability to comprehend the author’s words.

  • Make Connections –Experience and background knowledge help us make connections. These connections help us construct a deeper understanding of the text.-Text to Self-Text to Text-Text to World

  • Predict –Prior experience and background knowledge to form opinions as to what we think will happen in text.

What readers do1
What Readers Do

  • Question–Good readers assess what they already know and decide what they need to learn from a text.

  • Visualize– Readers create pictures in their minds as they read text. This is based on our prior experiences and background knowledge.

  • Determine What is Important – Using prior knowledge and determining a purpose for reading helps readers to separate unimportant information from key points.

What readers do2
What Readers Do

  • Infer– Reading between the lines to determine a character’s motivation and personality, to discover themes, and to identify the main points in informational texts.

  • Synthesize – This involves determining the main idea of a passage or chapter and choosing points that relate to that idea.

  • Monitor Comprehension – Being aware of and pinpointing confusing passages and vocabulary that cause meaning to break down and being able to tackle them on the spot.

Reading is thinking
Reading is Thinking

Metacognition- "big thinking." You are thinking about thinking. During this process you are examining your brain's processing.

Metacognitive Strategies- help students to "think about their thinking" before, during, and after they read.

Teachers work to guide students to become more strategic thinkers by helping them understand the way they are processing information.


  • Meaning-making

  • A primary goal of literacy practices

  • Comprehension is difficult to measure because people understand texts differently

    • Focus less on “if” a student comprehended a text and more on “how” she comprehended it.

    • Focus on efforts to build students’ metacognitive awareness—their awareness of the strategies they use to think about texts

Teaching comprehension
Teaching Comprehension

  • Reading should make sense!

    • If it doesn’t, you need to stop and ask why

    • Teach students to monitor their own reading

      • Noticing when things aren’t quite right

      • Reading the “world,” not just the word

      • Teach strategies for constructing meaning

  • Be wary of teaching comprehension strategies in lock-step or uniform ways

    • Flexibility

    • Intentionality

More comprehension assessments
More Comprehension Assessments

Translating or paraphrasing; consider having students translate into multiple sign systems as well as multiple languages or dialects

Think Alouds

Checklists for comprehension strategies

These need not be formal assessments

They can be used in instruction and for ongoing informal assessment.

Explicit and strategic instruction
Explicit and Strategic Instruction

Explicit Instruction

  • Demonstration (modeling)

  • Guided Practice

  • Independent Practice

    Strategic Instruction

  • Explains what to do

  • Shows how to do it

  • Explains when to use the strategy and when it might be useful (When and Why we’re doing it)

Interviews vs surveys
Interviews vs. Surveys

  • What might you say about the pros and cons of an interview vs. a survey? How might each one effect your tutoring?

  • What are you thinking about using in order to get to know your student?

  • Why are you choosing the method you are choosing?

  • Think about/discuss how you might position your tutee with the method(s) you choose.

Lesson plans
Lesson Plans

  • What will your assessment and lesson plans look like?

    • Samples

    • What about your first plans will help you learn about:

    • Your student as a human being?

    • Your student’s literacy development and/or attitude toward literacy?

  • When writing assessment and tutoring plans:

    • Be specific in your language, actually including some of the specific words you might say. Think Choice Words!

    • Think about how you word things, and what your words imply about the teacher/student relationship

    • Think about time

  • Email initial plan by class time Thursday; if needed, revised plans will be brought to tutoring on Tuesday

Review of assessment strategies
Review of assessment strategies

  • Getting to know you and self-concept

    • Interview (formal or informal)

    • Interest inventories

    • Reading interest and attitude surveys Homelitsurvey.doc

    • Home literacy survey

  • CAP and Observation survey components

  • Developmental checklists

  • Fluency/Reading rate

  • Comprehension

    • Retell (see different alternatives in packet)

    • Questioning

    • Think-alouds

  • Running Records, Miscue Analysis, and RMA

  • Writing rubrics and checklists

  • Anecdotal Notes

  • Classroom observation

Types of assessment
Types of Assessment

  • Observations

  • Anecdotal records

  • Interviews

  • Interest Inventories

  • Standards

  • Benchmarks

  • Running Records

  • Miscue Analysis

  • Writing sample

  • Checklists

The first three sessions
The first three sessions

  • Collect data on reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, visually-representing

  • Get to know your student as a person

  • Establish and build a rapport with your student

  • Introduce yourself to the child’s teacher--via email or in person

  • Familiarize yourself with the school

  • Set up a time to come in and observe your student the whole class environment

For thursday tuesday
For Thursday & Tuesday

  • Tutoring Kit due Tuesday. I will assess them while we are at Milner.

  • You need to plan out your first session with your student. A “get to know you” plan. Place your plan in DropBox by class time on Thursday.

  • I will notify you if you need to revise your plan and you will then need to bring a revised plan to tutoring on Tuesday.