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Week 4 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Week 4
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  1. The Time of Liberation 1919-1923 – Part 1 Week 4

  2. Historical Overview of Modern Turkey -1

  3. i) opening up the Straits,ii) guaranteeing access to the Black Seaiii) providing for Allied occupation of the fortresses along the Dardanelles and Bosphorus,iv) foreseeing immediate demobilisation of Turkish troops, except where necessary to preserve order,v) placing Allies in control of all the railroads,vi) Article VII: giving the Allies "the right to occupy any strategic points in the event of any situation arising which threatens the security of the Allies". Signing of the Armistice of Mudros(Oct30,1918)

  4. "The Big Four" made all the major decisions at the Paris Peace Conference (from left to right, David Lloyd George of Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Georges Clemenceau of France, Woodrow Wilson of the U.S.)

  5. Largely as a result of British diplomacy, Paris Peace Conference authorizes Greek forces to land on Turkish territory

  6. 1) No more secret agreements between countries. Diplomacy shall be open to the world. 2) International seas shall be free to navigate during peace and war. 3) There shall be free trade between the countries who accept the peace. 4) There shall be a worldwide reduction in weapons and armies by all countries. 5) Colonial claims over land and regions will be fair. 6) Russia will be allowed to determine its own form of government. 7)German troops will evacuate Belgium and Belgium will be an independent country. 8)France will regain all territory including the disputed land of Alsace-Lorraine. 9) The borders of Italy will be established 10) Austria-Hungary will be allowed to continue to be an independent country. 11) Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania becomingindependent countries. 12) The Turkish people of the Ottoman Empire will have their own country. Other nationalities under the Ottoman rule will also have security.(nationalself determination) 13) Poland shall be an independent country. 14) A League of Nations will be formed that protects the independence of all countries no matter how big or small. Summary of the Fourteen Points

  7. The Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919, (Germany) • The Treaty of Saint-Germain, 10 September 1919, (Austria) • The Treaty of Neuilly, 27 November 1919, (Bulgaria) • The Treaty of Trianon, 4 June 1920, (Hungary) • The Treaty of Sèvres, 10 August 1920; subsequently revised by the Treaty of Lausanne, 24 July 1923, (Ottoman Empire/Republic of Turkey). 5 major peace treaties were prepared at the Paris Peace Conference

  8. The Treaty of Sèvres territorially carved up the ‘Sick Man of Europe’

  9. Greek forces landing İzmir on May 15, 1919

  10. OfficializationIstanbul’sOccupation (May 16,1919)

  11. The Ottoman Parliament, gathered in a secret session, ratifies the decisions adopted in Erzurum Congress and Sivas Congress and the publishes the Misak-ıMilli(National Oath) document constituting the basis of principle of Turkey's frontiers. Turkish Borders according to Misak-iMilli (National Pact/Oath) of 28 January1920

  12. 1) The future of the territories inhabited by an Arab majority at the time of the signing of the Armistice of Mudros will be determined by a referendum. On the other hand, the territories which were not occupied at that time and inhabited by a Turkish [ + Kurdish] majority are the homeland of the Turkish nation. 2) The status of Kars, Ardahan and Batum may be determined by a referendum. 3) The status of Western Thrace will be determined by the votes of its inhabitants. 4) The security of Constantinople and Marmara should be provided for. Transport and free-trade on the Straits of the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles will be determined by Turkey and other concerned countries. 5) The rights of minorities will be issued on condition that the rights of the Muslim minorities in neighboring countries are protected. 6) In order to develop in every field, the country should be independent and free; all restrictions on political, judicial and financial development will be removed. 6 Principles of National Pact

  13. The TGNA, established on the basis of national sovereignty, holds the opening session of its first term and elects Mustafa Kemal Pasha as president of the assembly (April 23,1920)

  14. Two of the signatories of the Ottoman Empire. Left to right: RızaTevfik; Grand vizier DamatFerid Pasha

  15. The Turkish War of Independence (May 19, 1919 – July 24, 1923)

  16. The Turkish Army's entry into Izmir on September 9, 1922, following the successful Izmir Offensive, effectively sealed the Turkish victory and ended the war.

  17. To be continued – Part II