Protein Synthesis & Mutations. All illustrations in this presentation were obtained from Google.com. Scientists. Who discovered the shape of the DNA molecule and was awarded the Nobel Prize?. Watson & Crick. Who used X-rays to determine what DNA really looked like?. Rosalind Franklin.
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Protein Synthesis & Mutations All illustrations in this presentation were obtained from Google.com
Who discovered the shape of the DNA molecule and was awarded the Nobel Prize?
Who actually found DNA is the “factor” that caused good bacteria to change into bad bacteria?
Avery Remember: Avery got an “A” for finding DNA
Who used radioactive bacteriophages (viruses) to confirm the genetic material being transferred was DNA? Bacteriophage (Virus) Bacteria Cell
Hershey & ChaseBacteriophages chase after bacteria to inject their DNA for infection and replication. Real Picture of a Bacteriophage
Who tried to find the genetic material but failed? Instead he found TRANSFORMATION. This scientist injected mice with killed disease causing bacteria and good, live bacteria and the mice died of pneumonia.
GriffithF for failing to find genetic material!F for finding: TRANSFORMATION He found that good bacteria are changed into bad bacteria with transfer of some “factor.”
Who found: % of Adenine = % Thymine % Cytosine = % Guanine What is this rule called?
CHARGAFF Chargoff’s Rule of BASE PAIRING!
1. What does DNA stand for ?2. What is its shape?3. What is its function?4. What sugar is in DNA?5. Where is it found in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes?
1. DeoxyriboNucleic Acid2. Double Helix3. Carries the genetic code to make proteins (amino acid chain)4. Deoxyribose sugar5. Eukaryotes=nucleusProkaryotes=cytoplasm
1 3 2 1. Phosphate Group 2. 5-Carbon Sugar (Deoxyribose)3. Nitrogen Base (A, T, C, or G)
Must have 2 identical strands of DNA Each has one original strand and one new strand Cell Division
Original double helix unzips/unwinds DNA Polymerase attaches to make new strand of DNA 2 New strands of DNA are created with complimentary nitrogen bases (A-T, C-G) Two identical double helix DNAs are formed each with one original strand and one new strand
An original strand of DNA has these nitrogen basesC G G T A T G A TWhat are the complimentary bases for the new DNA strand after replication?What holds the nitrogen bases together to form the “steps of the ladder”?
C G G T A T G A T original strand l l l l l l l l l G C C A T A C T A new strand Hydrogen Bonds
List 3 Similarities and 3 Differences DNA RNA Similarities Both are Nucleic Acids Sugar Phosphate Backbones A, C, G Nitrogen Bases Differences Deoxyribose Sugar Ribose Sugar Thymine Uracil Double Helix Single Strand
List Similarities and Differences DNA RNA Similarities Both are Nucleic Acids Sugar Phosphate Backbones A, C, G nitrogen Bases Differences Deoxyribose Sugar Ribose Sugar Thymine base Uracil base Double Helix Single Strand
Strawberry DNA Extraction Lab Be able to explain the following: Why did you use soap? Why did you use salt? Why did you use meat tenderizer Why did you use cold alcohol?
Strawberry DNA Extraction Lab Go back to your lab or look at the power point on Dr. Hensley’s web page. You aren’t going to get the answers that easy!
mRNA- messenger RNA - brings genetic code for proteins from DNA to ribosome (recipe) tRNA – transfer RNA -brings amino acids to ribosomes (Sous chef)rRNA – ribosomal RNA- (ribosome) makes the protein (chef)
RNA 1. What does RNA stand for ?2. How many different kinds are there?3. What is its function?4. What sugar is in RNA?5. Where is RNA found?
1. What does RNA stand for ?Ribonucleic Acid2. How many different kinds are there?3: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA3. What is RNA’s function?To make proteins4. What sugar is in RNA?Ribose sugar5.Where is RNA found? In the cytoplasm mtRNA rRNA mmRNA
What is the whole process of making proteins that includes transcription & translation called?
What is the whole process of making proteins that includes transcription & translation called? PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
List the steps to make mRNA What is this process called?
List the steps to make mRNA “TRANSCRIPTION” In the nucleus, DNA unzips RNA Polymerase binds to DNA at promoter region RNA Polymerase reads DNA genetic code (nitrogen bases) and makes complimentary mRNA and edits it mRNA goes out of nucleus through pores
List the steps to make polypeptide chain (protein) from mRNA What is this process called?
List the steps to make protein “TRANSLATION” (comes LATer) In the cytoplasm, rRNA attaches to mRNA rRNA reads mRNA beginning at the AUG “START codon” Each tRNA brings 1 amino acid to ribosome that has an anti-codon to mRNA codon until it reads a “STOP” codon Amino acids join to form polypeptide chain = PROTEIN Polypeptide Chain = PROTEIN Amino Acid tRNA mRNA rRNA ribosome
What is the 3 base code on the tRNA called? Anti-codon