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ORGANISMS : Made up of one or more cells . Move Respond to changes in their environment . Anything they respond to is called a stimulus, (ex. Dogs hearing a sound), the action is a response (wagging tail, barking)

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life science
  • Made up of one or more cells.
  • Move
  • Respond to changes in their environment. Anything they respond to is called a stimulus, (ex. Dogs hearing a sound), the action is a response (wagging tail, barking)
  • Use energy – plants get their energy from the sun, animals get it from plants or other animals, they release energy through respiration (breathing).
  • Homeostasis – ability to adjust to the environment. The body is able to regulate the conditions and bring itself back to normal (heart beat, blood pressure, breathing, etc.)
  • Reproduce – produce new individuals that are very like the parent organism
  • Grow and develop – increase in size, develop (ex. Dogs can’t see or walk when they are first born but then they develop).
  • Adapt – inherited features that help the animal survive (dogs – fur coats for winter, panting for summer, plant – certain color flower or hair)
  • Have life spans – have a beginning and an end (can be short – mayflies live one day or long – some bristlecone pine trees have been alive for 4500 years)
  • Energy (food or sunlight)
  • Water
  • Oxygen

Life Science

Diffusion – the movement of particles from regions of higher density (concentration) to lower density.



Of water.

Passive transport – movement of particles across a cell membrane (high to low) without the use of energy (diffusion, osmosis)

Active transport – movement of particles across a membrane from high concentration to low – takes ENERGY

Structure- the shape and materials of parts in an organism.

Function– the job the part does.

Cell Theory

( Schwann, Virchow)

All organisms are made of one or more cells.

The cell is the basic unit of all living things.

All cells come from existing cells.

7 levels of Classification: King Phillip Came Over From Good Spain Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.


  • Plant Kingdom
  • Bryophytes: Small with leaflike, stemlike, and rootlike structures.
  • Disseminated by spores: mosses, liverworts, hornworts.
  • Vascular Plants: Larger with true leaves, stems, and roots.
  • Seedless: Ferns, horsetails, club mosses.
  • Seed Plants:
    • Gymnosperms: Usually have cones, no flowers, seeds not enclosed in fruit: pines, spruces, firs, hemlocks, cycads, ginkgo.
    • Angiosperms: Have flowers, seeds enclosed in fruit
      • Monocotyledons: Leaves have parallel veins, one seed leaf: grasses, orchids, lilies, palms.
      • Dicotyledons: Leaves have netted veins, two seed leaves: cherry trees, maples, coffee, daisies, etc.

Mosses have rhizoids


carbon cycle
Nitrogen Cycle

Water Cycle

Carbon Cycle

Cellular Respiraton– plants and animals take in oxygen and sugar and convert it to water, CO2, and ATP energy. It occurs in the mitochondria.

Fermentation - the process of energy production in a cell under anaerobic conditions (without oxygen)


Nervous system

DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid

Cardiovascular system

Excretory system

Skeletal system

Digestive system


Before Charles Darwin wrote about how he thought life on Earth evolved, most people believed that humans, and plants and animals had not changed since life began on this planet. When Darwin visited Galapagos, he found that many birds, animals, plants and reptiles had developed differently from the same ancestors. Over millions of years they have slowly adapted to the different environments around them by the process called evolution.


There are thirteen species of Darwin's finch, a small sparrow-like bird, in the Galapagos Islands. Each species has adapted - or evolved - depending on the type of food that it feeds on. This is shown by the different beak shapes.

For example, the large ground finch has developed a broad, wide beak, for cracking hard seeds. Other types of finch feed on insects, some remove ticks from tortoises, and one even pecks at seabirds and feeds on their blood! Each finch species has evolved according to its particular food source.

  • Darwin's Theory
  • Darwin's theory of evolution has four main parts:
    • Organisms have changed over time, and the ones living today are different from those that lived in the past. Furthermore, many organisms that once lived are now extinct. The world is not constant, but changing.
    • All organisms are derived from common ancestors by a process of branching. Over time, populations split into different species, which are related because they are descended from a common ancestor. Thus, if one goes far enough back in time, any pair of organisms has a common ancestor.
    • Change is gradual and slow, taking place over a long time.
    • The mechanism of evolutionary change was natural selection.