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Funding of Religious Heritage – the Case of Denmark. Contribution to RELIGARE / CNRS-Seminar Strasbourg. Approach: ‘in dominant church systems’. Presupposing state involvement in funding religious buildings and other religious sites contributing to national heritage

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funding of religious heritage the case of denmark

Funding of Religious Heritage – the Case of Denmark

Contribution to RELIGARE / CNRS-Seminar

Strasbourg

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

approach in dominant church systems
Approach: ‘in dominant church systems’

Presupposing state involvement in funding religious buildings and other religious sites contributing to national heritage

Historically: churches in DK were built & owned by kings, by noble men, by monasteries and by local people. A system of churchwardens, since 1903 supplemented by congregation councils.

20th century made church buildings within the national church freehold, governed by the congregation councils.

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

roskilde cathedral unesco world heritage
Roskilde CathedralUnesco world heritage

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

funding roskilde cathedral
Funding Roskilde Cathedral:

Maintenance:

Church tax paid by church members in the town of Roskilde + payment from tourists for visits outside services

Restoration: state tax, paid by all citizens, has contributed to the recent restoration. This is due to the function as royal burial place, thus an exception from a general rule.

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

jelling national heritage built 1100 between two viking graves
Jelling – national heritage (built 1100 between two Viking graves)

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

and thus also site for the official millennium celebration 03 12 2000
And thus also site for the official millennium celebration 03-12-2000

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

funding jelling village church
Funding Jelling village church:

Maintenance:

Church members in the council (85 % of population). No payment for visits to the church (open all day all year around). No state funding to maintenance.

Restoration in 2000: funded by a national foundation, established with the speaker of parliament (former Roskilde University vice chancellor) as chair in order to celebrate the millennium, thus the second exception from the general rule

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

our savior s church copenhagen ca 1700 example of a tourist site
Our Savior’s Church, Copenhagen (ca 1700 - example of a tourist site)

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

funding our savior s church
Funding, Our Savior’s Church

Maintenance:

Church tax paid by church members in Copenhagen (50% of the population) + payment for tourists visits to the tower, whereas visits in the church is for free

Restoration (2009):

15 mio Euro paid as church tax by church members in Copenhagen + ½ mio euro financed through private funding after application. No state aid.

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

our lady s church cathedral of copenhagen 1200 rebuild 1829
Our Lady’s Church, Cathedral of Copenhagen (1200, rebuild 1829)

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

hover early roman church ca 1100
Hover– early roman church, ca 1100

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

both churches are listed as cultural sites financed equally
Both churches are listed as cultural sites – financed equally:

Maintenance: members of the Danish national church in the local area. No state co-financing of building – no payment for visits (both are open all day)

Restoration: members of the church in the local area + external private funding based on application

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

cemeteries churchyards
Cemeteries/churchyards

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

funding of cemeteries
Funding of cemeteries:

Most of the around 2.200 cemeteries are owned, maintained and restored by the church and thus funded through a combination of church taxes (paid by members only) and payment for a burial place, including maintenance of that plot.

10 Cemeteries in major cities are owned, maintained and restored by the city council; the citizens still by their burial place and thereby contribute to the maintenance of the individual plot.

The Jewish community, Catholics and a few others own their own cemeteries – paid by the congregation.

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

church for hugeunotte s in fredericia 1736
Church for Hugeunotte’s in Fredericia (1736)

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

funding of reformed church buildings
Funding of reformed church buildings:

Maintenance: the congregation (ca 2.000 people). The state does not organise any church taxes

Restoration: the congregation and private funding after application. No state aid.

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

catholic st ansgarius church copenhagen 1840 and earlier
Catholic St Ansgarius’ Church, Copenhagen (1840 and earlier)

Maintenance: the catholic congregation in Denmark + aid from the Catholic church in Germany. No state aid in organising e.g. church taxes

Restoration: church members and private funding. No payment for visits

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

jewish synagogue in copenhagen 1833
Jewish Synagogue in Copenhagen (1833)

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

funding of buildings for the jewish congregation s
Funding of buildings for the Jewish congregation(s):

Maintenance: the Jewish congregation. No payment for visits (however, due to security reasons, visits only by arrangement). No state organisation of sort of religious tax -

Restoration: the Jewish congregation + private funding

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

anglican st alban s church 1887
Anglican St Alban’s Church (1887)

Established: funding from the royal families + private funding

Maintenance: the Anglican community in DK

Restoration: the Anglican community in DK + private funding

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

st aleksander nevskij church copenhagen 1883
St AleksanderNevskij Church, Copenhagen (1883)

Established, maintained and restored after the same principles as the Anglican church

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

organisation
Organisation:

The Norwegian Church in Copenhagen (1953 ca)

Established as part of a private organisation: Norwegian church for seamen.

Now Church of Norway abroad. Co-financed by the Norwegian state (1/3), members’ fees & private funding

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

baptist and evangelical churches
Baptist- and Evangelical Churches

Establishment, maintenance & Restoration: all paid for by the members of the religious community. No state or council support.

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

the most established mosque in copenhagen a former factory
The most established mosque in Copenhagen – a former factory

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

c ity council has accepted this project for a new shiit mosque in c openhagen
City-council has accepted this project for a new Shiit-mosque in Copenhagen

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

and this for a sunnit mosque also in copenhagen
- And this for a Sunnit-mosque, also in Copenhagen

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

funding for mosque s
Funding for Mosque’s:

Establishment: the same principles as other religious communities outside the national church: the members of the community in principle. However, this leads to a huge external funding from foreign states.

Maintenance & Restoration: in principle as for other non-national church communities

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk

to conclude
To conclude:

There is in general no public funding of religious heritage in the Danish dominant church system, except when the royal family is involved

And absolutely no public funding of religious buildings belonging to other religious communities, incl Muslim groups.

The wisdom in this approach could be discussed.

Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, lic@ruc.dk