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Races & Traits Identified from GEM and ideas for future utilization . G ermplasm E nhancement of M aize. M. Blanco, C. Gardner, W. Salhuana, M. Shen USDA-ARS NCRPIS GEM - August 17, 2006 -. Review GEM germplasm for target traits, and development Ames & Raleigh (released lines)

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races traits identified from gem and ideas for future utilization

Races & Traits Identified from GEM and ideas for future utilization

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

M. Blanco, C. Gardner, W. Salhuana, M. Shen

USDA-ARS NCRPIS GEM

- August 17, 2006 -

objectives
Review GEM germplasm for target traits, and development

Ames & Raleigh (released lines)

Private and Public Coop germplasm information

Document status of tested/untested accessions

Discuss ideas for future utilization of GEM germplasm

Prioritization of GEM accessions and breeding crosses

Other applications, info needed, etc.

Objectives

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

gem trait targets
Agronomic adaptability - yield, lodging, grain moisture, and Y/M

Abiotic stress tolerance: drought and heat

Ear mold and mycotoxin resistance: aflatoxin and fumonisin

Disease resistance: stalk and leaf diseases

Insect resistance (CRW, CEW, ECB)

Value-added traits (VAT’s)

Grain (protein>13%, oil>6%, and starch>75%)

Protein quality

Starch functional properties and Bio-energy traits

Silage yield & quality

GEM Trait Targets

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

summary of gem trials year 1998 2005
Summary of GEM trials(year 1998 – 2005)
  • No. of accessions used 66
  • No. of hybrids used 7
  • No. of lines used 13
  • No. of Populations used 3
  • No. of races 21
  • No. of breeding crosses tested 220
  • No. of breeding crosses untested 260
  • No. of release lines 1117
  • No. of new breeding crosses 63
  • % GEM entries above check means 5.9%

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

gem accessions by races and countries
GEM Accessions by Races and Countries

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

germplasm releases 2001 2006
GERMPLASM RELEASES (2001-2006)
  • 135 Released Lines from Ames, Raleigh*, and SCA’s**
  • Data from 1999-2005
  • Emphasis on 2-3 year data, across 2-3 testers
  • Focus on target traits

* A few additional lines were distributed by Raleigh directly

** SCA releases from DE, TX, OH, and WI

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

gem germplasm releases
GEM germplasm releases

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

accessions with greater than 5 entries above check means yr 1999 2005 midwest
Accessions with greater than 5% entries above check means (Yr: 1999-2005, Midwest)

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

accessions with 5 entries tested above check means yr 1999 2005 midwest
Accessions with <5% entries tested above check means (Yr: 1999-2005, Midwest)

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

slide12

Low Aflatoxin GEM Lines 2003 - 2004

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

Resistant

Resistant

Resistant

ModResistant

Susceptible

M. Clements, USDA-ARS, MS (2005)

breeding crosses with low aflatoxin content
Breeding crosses with low aflatoxin content

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

Resistant

Resistant

Mod Resist

Susceptible

Susceptible

M. Clements, USDA-ARS, MS (2005)

fusarium ear rot and fumonisin content
Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin content

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

Jim Holland, USDA-ARS, Raleigh, NC (2003 - 5) & Bill Dolezal, Pioneer Hi-Bred Int’l, Woodland, CA (2005)

fusarium fumonisin resistant pedigrees
Fusarium/Fumonisin Resistant Pedigrees

Race Country

  • GEMS-0002:FS8A(S):S09-43-2 Mixed USA
  • GEMS-0003:2011-01_SE32_S17_F2S4 Dente Amarelo Brazil
  • GEMS-0061:AR16026:S17-10-1-B-B Cristalino Colorado Argentina

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

SE32 = BR52060

fusarium ear rot
Fusarium Ear Rot

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

Susceptible Line

Resistant Line

MDI022:N2120-399-001-B

GEMS-0002 Public Release

Bill Dolezal, Pioneer Hi-Bred Int’l, Woodland, CA (2005)

gray leafspot resistant gem germplasm
Gray leafspot resistant GEM germplasm

Germplasm line Derivation Country/Race

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

SE32 = BR52060 and PE001 = BR51403

Balint-Kurti, et al., (2006), Carson, et al., (2006), and Hawk et al. (2005)

protein quality index met lys trp 3 year

Pedigree Protein quality index Significant level

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

GEMS-0010

GEMS-0017

Normal Check

Normal Check

Normal Check

GEMS-0029

GEMS-0004

GEMS-0031

GEMS-0026

GEMS-0030

Met Check

Lys+Trp Check

AA Concentration

P. Scott & M. Blanco, USDA-ARS, Ames (2005)

Protein Quality Index (Met + Lys + Trp) – 3 Year
amylose and resistant starch content derived from guat209 s13
Amylose and resistant starch content derived from GUAT209:S13

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

J.L. Jane, ISU & M. Campbell, Truman State U., (2005)

breeding crosses traits from derived lines guatemala and peru
Breeding crosses & traits from derived lines – Guatemala and Peru

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

breeding crosses traits from derived lines barbados dom repub and st croix
Breeding crosses & traits from derived lines – Barbados, Dom. Repub., and St. Croix

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

lamp accessions not yet in pipeline
LAMP Accessions not (yet) in Pipeline

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

summary
GEM is making progress in identifying target trait phenotypes from ~20 races that can be useful for breeding and genomic applications

Raleigh’s strength: developm’t for southern adapt, leaf disease and aflatox./fumon. resistance, and VAT’s (AA index, starch properties)

Ames strength: Midwest adapt, anthracnose, CRW, and abiotic stress germplasm; fumonisin resist.; VAT’s (AA, starch properties)

Overall, tropical accessions have had better combination of target traits than temperate (so far)

Most promising tropical accessions from Cuba, Brazil, Mexico, Thailand

Most promising temperate include FS8’s, and earlier material from AR, UR, and Chile with good Y/M, and earliness for Midwest

Feedback from cooperators is positive for material released from Raleigh and Ames (CUBA164, FS8’s, DK888’s, and Brazilian derived material)

Summary

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

issues suggested ideas
GEM has 589 breeding crosses with 123 tested-suggest to prioritize:

A. Continue working the remaining untested LAMP’s

B. Determine appropriate focus on breeding crosses we have released accessions from

C. Utilize successful breeding crosses for specific traits (CUBA164, etc.)

D. Implement SSD to reduce rows required for planting ETR S1 families-we can work 3X more pops

Lack of information on relatedness of accessions

A. Characterize accessions using SSRs or SNPs to assess degree of relationship between races or among accessions within a race

B. Develop genomic information on an important accession like CUBA164 with extensive phenotypic information to enhance likelihood of identifying trait associations with specific genotypes. Could be interesting model for future gene discovery

Marker assisted selection (MAS)

A. GEM lines are heterogenous-need to create homozygous lines for future mapping pops (to be done by partners?)

Issues/Suggested Ideas

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

GEM private and public cooperators

USDA-ARS Collaborators

GEM staff

Andy Smelser, Res. Tech

Fred Engstrom, Res. Tech

Sue Duvick, Lab Manager