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MS THESISDistance Aware Relaying Energy-efficient: (DARE) to Monitor Patients in Multi-hop Body Area Networks Supervisors: Principle Supervisor: Dr. NadeemJavaid (CAST-CIIT) Co-Supervisor: Dr. AamirHabib (IST) Presenter: AnumTauqir firstname.lastname@example.org
Outline • Introduction • Motivation • Distance Aware Relaying Energy-efficient (DARE) • Implementation, results and conclusion • Non-Invasive Inductive Link Model for Pacemakers • Implementation, results and conclusion
Introduction • Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) • Network of sensors • Implement communications on, near, and around the human body • Applications • Medical field • Aerospace • Sports and Entertainment etc. Types of sensors In-Vivo Pacemaker: to monitor heart patients. Wearable Sensor analyzing motion of a body.
Motivation • M-ATTEMPT- Mobility-supporting Adaptive Threshold-based Thermal-aware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol, exhibits • Low stability period • Less network lifetime • High energy consumption • Proposition of DARE – Distance Aware Relaying Energy-efficient Protocol • Non-invasive induction mechanism to recharge sensors  N. Javaid, Z. Abbas, M. Farid, Z. Khan, and N. Alrajeh, “M-attempt: A new energy-efficient routing protocol in wireless body area sensor networks,” 4th International Conference on Ambient Systems, Networks and Technologies (ANT 2013), 2013, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2013.
Proposed Scheme: DAREBlock Diagram Body Sensors (BSs) Different sink scenarios Two • threshold monitoring sensors (Glucose, Temperature) Sink Or Main Sensor (MS) Body Relay (BR) S1 S2 External Network S3 Five • continuous monitoring sensors (ECG, Heart rate, Pulse rate, Motions, Toxins) S4 S5 • Basic schematic diagram of protocol operation. • BSs - Detect physical parameters under low parameters. • BRs - Act as forwarders of data from BSs to BRs to MS/Sink (Mobile Phone). • Sink – External monitoring system (server, desktop). • MS - A type of sink device with either unlimited or at least very high energy resources (PDA).
Proposed Scheme: DARE Sensor’s Deployment • Hospital ward - 40 x 20 ft2 • Eight patients • Variable sensor types - standard deployment of sensors (sensing sensors) • Five scenarios (Sinks may be static or mobile) • Distance changes energy consumption • Different energy parameters • Mobility in patient Sensors deployment on patient measuring, seven different parameters along with a relay node (BR) placed on chest.
Proposed Scheme: DARE Communication Flow • BSs = body sensors • EBS = energy of body sensor • EBR = energy of body relay • th = threshold • lo = low threshold • hi = high threshold • cont = continuous • Eres = residual energy • d = distance between sensors • tpd = propagation delay • Temperature threshold = 350C -- 400C • Glucose threshold = 110mg/dL -- 125mg/dL Monitoring a patent For all BSs If EBS > 0 No Yes If EBR > 0 If lo/hi No No Stops monitoring Yes Yes If BS= th Measure Eres,d,tpd No Yes BS=cont Protocol Operation for monitoring a patient.
Proposed Scheme: DARE Scenario-1 Continuous data monitoring sensors (BSs) Event-driven data monitoring sensors (BSs) Body Relay (BR) Sink Deploys single static sink. The communication flow is from BSs to BR to sink.
Proposed Scheme: DARE Scenario-2 Continuous data monitoring sensors (BSs) Event-driven data monitoring sensors (BSs) Body Relay (BR) Sink Sink2 Sink1 Sink3 Sink4 The BR checks for the nearest sink by calculating it’s distance with each sink. The communication flow is from BSs to BR to nearest Sink1/2/3/4.
Proposed Scheme: DARE Scenario-3 Continuous data monitoring sensors (BSs) Event-driven data monitoring sensors (BSs) Body Relay (BR) Sink Main Sensor (MS) The deployment of MS helps the BR to consume little energy as, BR transmits data over shorter distance. Communication flow is from BSs to BR to MS to Sink.
Proposed Scheme: DARE Scenario-4 Continuous data monitoring sensors (BSs) Event-driven data monitoring sensors (BSs) Body Relay (BR) Sink 3 1 2 It follows the same communication flow as sceanrio-1 however, now the sink is made mobile which, moves along the center of ward.
Proposed Scheme: DARE Scenario-5 Continuous data monitoring sensors (BSs) Event-driven data monitoring sensors (BSs) Body Relay (BR) Sink Sink2 3 1 2 2 3 1 Sink1 Sink3 3 2 1 1 3 2 Sink4 Multiple sinks move around the walls of the ward altogether. The BR communicates with the nearest sink. The communication flow is from BSs to BR to the nearest moving Sink1/2/3/4.
ComparisonM-ATTEMPT and DARE M-ATTEMPT Patient DARE Patient Sensors deployment on proposed DARE protocol and compared M-ATTEMPT protocol.
Results for Static PatientsAlive Nodes DARE’s scenario-5, incorporates multiple moving sinks. BRs reduce the energy consumption of nodes.
Number of Received Packets The probability for receiving packets with success is set to be 0.7. Sink mobility in scenario-5 let the network to continue operation for more rounds and let network to receive huge number of packets.
Propagation Delay DARE exhibits more delay in case of all scenarios. As the communication flow is not direct between transmitter and receiver, delay is high.
Results for Mobile Patient Alive Nodes Deployment of BRs helps in reducing the degradation of network performance, due to mobility.
Number of Received Packets In case of DARE’s scenario-5, the network is able to receive more packets as compared to rest scenarios.
Propagation Delay DARE exhibits more delay in case of all scenarios as compared to M-ATTEMPT.
Non-Invasive Induction to Recharge Sensors • Aim is to • Recharge pacemakers sensor’s battery • Avoid frequent surgical operations and battery failure • Extend working duration of sensors • Pacemakers • Create forced rhythms • Natural human heart beats in arrhythmic patients Schematic view of an inductive link Primary side inducing voltage to regulate power at secondary side (implanted inside human body).
Induction Models Series Tuned Primary Circuit (STPC) Series Tuned Primary and Parallel Tuned Secondary Circuit (STPPTSC) A capacitor C2p has been connected in parallel at secondary side, making a low pass filter which, allows low frequencies to pass through while, blocking the higher frequencies, thereby, preventing damages to body tissues. A capacitor is connected in series at primary side, in order to induce sufficient amount of voltage to the secondary coil.   G. B. Hmida, H. Ghariani, and M. Samet. “Design of wireless power and data transmission circuits for implantable biomicrosystem,” Biotechnology, vol. 6, no. 2, 2007, pp. 153–164.
Link Parameters STPC STPPTSC Voltage Gain   Link Efficiency   Quality Factor  
ResultsVoltage Gain STPC STPPTSC Vload increases by about 3 times than Vs. As, k increases Vload/Vs increases. Vload increases by about 2 times than Vs.
ResultsLink Efficiency STPC STPPTSC As, k increases η increases and is about 75%. η increases by 15%, i.e. 90% of the input power has been efficiently transferred to the secondary side.
ResultsQuality Factor In case of STPPTSC, the Q factor is higher as compared to STPC. Thus, achieves good tuning under resonant conditions at f= 13.56 MHz.
Publications  Tauqir, A., N. Javaid, S. Akram, A. Rao, and S. N. Mohammad. "Distance Aware Relaying Energy-efficient: DARE to Monitor Patients in Multi-hop Body Area Sensor Networks." In Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), 2013 Eighth International Conference on, pp. 206-213. IEEE, 2013.  Tauqir, A., S. Akram, A. H. Khan, N. Javaid, and M. Akbar. "Non-Invasive Induction Link Model for Implantable Biomedical Microsystems: Pacemaker to Monitor Arrhythmic Patients in Body Area Networks." In Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), 2013 Eighth International Conference on, pp. 232-237. IEEE, 2013.  Akram, S., N. Javaid, A. Tauqir, A. Rao, and S. N. Mohammad. "THE-FAME: THreshold Based Energy-Efficient FAtigueMEasurement for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks Using Multiple Sinks." In Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), 2013 Eighth International Conference on, pp. 214-220. IEEE, 2013.