Review: Watch the video and tell me what was wrong with this research? Research methods http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmNuVgVmIBs&list=UUhIgRn4J11TZwgAnGpdI19w&index=27
Standard Deviants Experiments http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j04DPW37OKE
Standard Deviants Classical Conditioning http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=21YYHS3YUyE&list=UUhIgRn4J11TZwgAnGpdI19w&index=2
The Law of Effect rewarded behavior is likely to recur. • Edward Thorndike • One of the 1st to research this kind of learning (operant) Locked cats in a cage • Behavior changes because of its consequences • Rewards strengthen behavior. • If consequences are unpleasant, the Stimulus-Reward connection will weaken. • Called the whole process instrumental learning.
Operant Conditioning • Standard Deviants Operant Conditioning http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1fGcSyT-5M&list=UUhIgRn4J11TZwgAnGpdI19w&index=3
Reinforces • A reinforcer is anything the INCREASES a behavior. Positive Reinforcement: • The addition of something pleasant. • Candy for pushing a lever. Negative Reinforcement: • The removal of something unpleasant. • Hitting the alarm snooze. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JA96Fba-WHk
Examples of Negative Reinforcement • Taking aspirin to relieve a headache. • Hurrying home in the winter to get out of the cold. 3. Giving in to an argument or to a dog's begging. • Fanning oneself to escape the heat. • Leaving a movie theater if the movie is bad. • Smoking in order to relieve anxiety. • Following prison rules in order to be released from confinement. • Feigning a stomachache in order to avoid school. 9. Putting on a car safety belt to stop an irritating buzz. • Turning down the volume of a very loud radio. • Putting up an umbrella to escape the rain. • Saying "uncle" to stop being beaten.
Continuous v. Partial Reinforcement Continuous Partial also called Intermittent • Reinforce the behavior EVERYTIME the behavior is exhibited. Usually done when the subject is first learning to make the association. • Reinforce the behavior only SOME of the times it is exhibited. • Acquisition comes more slowly. • But is more resistant to extinction. • FOUR types of Partial Reinforcement schedules.
Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous reinforcement refers to reinforcement being administered to each instance of a response • Partial reinforcement lies between continuous reinforcement and extinction
Ratio Schedules • Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. e.g., piecework pay. • Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. This is hard to extinguish because of the unpredictability. (e.g., behaviors like gambling, fishing.)
Interval Schedules • Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. (e.g., preparing for an exam only when the exam draws close.) • Variable-interval schedule: Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responses. (e.g., pop quiz.)
Comparisons of Schedules of Reinforcement FORM OF REWARD INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR SCHEDULE Fixed interval Leads to average and irregular performance Fast extinction of behavior Reward on fixed time basis Fixed ratio Reward tied to specific number of responses Moderately fast extinction of behavior Leads quickly to very high and stable performance Variable interval Reward given after varying periods of time Leads to moderately high and stable performance Slow extinction of behavior Variable ratio Reward given for some behaviors Leads to very high performance Very slow extinction of behavior
Punishment Meant to decrease a behavior. Positive Punishment • Addition of something unpleasant. Negative Punishment (Omission Training) • Removal of something pleasant. Punishment works best when it is immediately done after behavior and if it is harsh!
Classical Conditioning and Humans • John Watson brought Classical Conditioning to psychology with his Baby Albert experiment. Click to see Baby Albert to some nice jazz. This type of Classical Conditioning is also known as Aversive Conditioning.
The Contingency Model • Contingency theoryproposes that for learning to take place, a stimulus must provide the subject information about the likelihood that certain events will occur. Robert Rescorlademonstrated that the pairing of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not always produce learning and contended that it is necessary for the CS to signify a contingency. Day 9 - Contingency Theory - A lesson from the HAT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwQXYtM8DTQ This is one of the reasons some people can not lose weight or quit smoking.
Latent Learning: • Latent learning – learning in the absence of rewards • Humans and animals will work in the absence of rewards • If one group is given rewards and the other is not, the rewarded group will work harder • But…if the non rewarded group is eventually rewarded at a later time, they will work hard because the think a reward might come at a later time. • Edward Tolman – Rats and maze example (rats created a cognitive map) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9UDvHAsddE
Latent Learning • Edward Tolman– Rats and maze example (rats created a cognitive map) • Cognitive Map: mental picture http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SBTP7W5c3c8&feature=related
Social or Observational Learning • Modeling by watching the behavior of a model. For example; if you want to learn a new dance step you watch someone else do it. • Albert Bandura and his BoBo Doll • We learn through modeling behavior from others. • Observational learning + Operant Conditioning Click pic to see some observational learning.
Children See, Children Do http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KHi2dxSf9hw
Biological Factors in Learning: • Historically speaking, humans have avoided foods that are sour/bitter from a survival standpoint. • Taste Aversions – an intense dislike or avoidance of food because of its association with an unpleasant or painful stimulus through backward conditioning.
Memory • Standard Deviants Memory http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zf7zMl630lY&list=UUhIgRn4J11TZwgAnGpdI19w&index=19
Information Processing Model: compares our memory to a computer3 Step Process in how Memory Works Three step process…. • Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system. • Storage: The retention of encoded material over time. • Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.
Three Stages of Memory Three Stage Model • Stage 1 - Sensory Memoryis a brief representation of a stimulus while being processed in the sensory system • Stage 2 - Short-Term Memory(STM) is working memory • Limited capacity (7 items) • Duration is about 30 seconds • Stage 3 - Long-Term Memory(LTM) is large capacity and long duration Atikinson-Shiffrin three-stage model of memory, describes 3 different memory systems characterized by time frames:
Long Term Memory Three Stage Model • Unlimited storehouse of information. • Explicit ( or declarative) memories: our LTM of facts and experiences we consciously know and can verbalize. EG. Sematic(facts and general knowledge)and episodic (birthdays) • Implicit ( or non-declarative) memories: our long term memory for skills and procedures to do things by previous experience without that experience being consciously recalled. (Eg. Swimming.) Short Term Memory Activity
Recognition Retrieving Memories Recall Versus Recognition • Retrieval is the process of getting information out of memory storage. Recall • you must retrieve the information from your memory • fill-in-the blank or essay tests • you must identify the target from possible targets • multiple-choice tests
Mnemonics A trigger to aid memory, involving prompts such as visual imagery or sounds. Since imagery is at the heart of memory. Mnemonic techniques use vivid imagery in aiding memory. • Method of Loci • Link Method • Context Effects
Theories of Forgetting • Proactive interference: old information interferes with recall of new information • Retroactive interference: new information interferes with recall of old information • Decay theory: memory trace fades with time • Motivated forgetting: involves the loss of painful memories (protective memory loss) • Retrieval failure: the information is still within LTM, but cannot be recalled because the retrieval cue is absent
Phonemes • In a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit. • B, a, and t • Chat has three phonemes, ch, a, and t. How many phonemes does platypus have?
Morphemes • In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning. • Can be a word or part of a word (prefix or suffix).
Grammar • A system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate and understand others. Capitalize the beginning of a sentence
Semantics • The set of rules by which we derive meaning in a language. • Adding ed at the end of words means past tense. The Chinese languages do not have expansive semantic rules. They usually have totally different symbols for different tenses.
Syntax • The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences. • In English, adjectives come before nouns, but not in Spanish!! Is this the White House of the House White?
ChomskyInborn Universal Grammar • We acquire language too quickly for it to be learned. • We have this “learning box” inside our heads that enable us to learn any human language. Chomsky's View of Language Development http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gU-B0-DCKI
Whorf’s Linguistic Relativity • The idea that language determines the way we think (not vive versa). • The Hopi tribe has no past tense in their language, so Whorf says they rarely think of the past.
Lev Vygotsky Russian psychologist, contemporary of Piaget but his work not published in English until after his death in 1934 Believed that Piaget ignored the role of culture on cognitive development
Vygotsky’s Theory Cognitive development = active internalization of problem-solving processes as a result of interaction with others Ie, learning is ACTIVE, SOCIAL, and CREATIVE (ASC, sound familiar?) Children learn how to think through their interactions with others Where Piaget saw the child as a scientist, Vygotsky saw the child as an apprentice
Zone of Proximal Development • Vygotsky’s view: “…what a child can do with assistance today she will be able to do by herself tomorrow.” (Vygotsky, 1978) • Contrast with Piaget: “Every time we teach a child something, we keep him from inventing it himself. On the other hand, that which we allow him to discover for himself will remain with him visible for the rest of his life.” (Piaget, in Piers, 1972)
OBSTACLES TO PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, AND FORMING JUDGEMENTS Daniel Boone Thinking Cap Confirmation Bias Stress/Tension Tendency to search for info That confirms one’s beliefs Some stress helpful, but can Overload. Fixation Mental Set Functional Fixedness Inability to see problem from a fresh Perspective. Availability Heuristic Representative Heuristic Judge the liklihood of events on how Available the event is in our memory. Influenced by media. Judge the liklihood of events based on How well they match a prototype.
Theories of Motivation and Emotion Clips for class motivation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UP4dEr1wsjM&feature=player_embedded
3 Main Debates: 1. Nature vs. Nurture: How do genetic inheritance (nature) and experience (nurture) influence our development? blog.lib.umn.edu
2. Continuity vs. Discontinuity (Stages) Is development a gradual, continuous process like riding an escalator, or does it proceed through the sequence of separate states like climbing rungs on a ladder?
Stability vs. Change: Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age?
Reflexes:automatic(means involuntary) responses Babinski Reaction- Foot is rubbed against and the rest of the toes fan out. Moro Reflex- Baby feels like it is falling and arms and legs go out in search of something to hang onto. Rooting Reflex- if the baby is touched at the end of the mouth, the baby still turn and begin to suck. Grasping Reflex- Touch a babies hand it will close. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gyVLD0hl0XY
Mary Ainsworth Attachment Theory Ainsworth had a parent drop off their child with a stranger and then observed how the child reacted. She came up with Three distinctive attachments: 1. Secure Attachment- Just like it sounds the child is secure that mom is coming back and happy to see her when she does. 2. Avoidant Attachment -when mom comes back the child avoids them. 3. Anxious Attachment they are anxious in their surroundings . abc-counselling.com
Terms that go With Piaget’s cognitive development • 1. Object Permanence: The understanding that the an object exists even if they can not see it. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nwXd7WyWNHY • 2. Egocentric: cannot look at the world through anyone’s eyes but their own. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OinqFgsIbh0 3. Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance and is part of logical thinking. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7gUY8GM7rco
Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Stages http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Piaget's_Stages