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AP Review Session 10

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AP Review Session 10

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  1. AP Review Session 10

  2. Goals: 3 R’s- Relief, Recovery & Reform Favored direct relief to people New Deal wanted to restructure capitalism Used deficit spending on public works programs to revive the economy First 100 days FDR wanted to: Restore public confidence in the banking system (did NOT propose legislation to nationalize the banks) Create new jobs to help unemployment Raise farm prices through restricting agricultural production Mortgage support to homeowners Create TVA for cheap electricity, prevent floods, jobs All passed in first 100 days: -Civilian Conservation Corps -National Recovery Administration -Agricultural Adjustment Act -Tennessee Valley Authority FDR & the New Deal

  3. Agricultural Adjustment Act- AAA: Purpose to raise farm prices by limiting production National system of crop control & $ to farmers who agreed to limit certain crops Hard to understand when Americans starving & crops are destroyed and pigs killed SUPPLY & DEMAND National Industrial Recovery Act- NRA: Sought to foster government business cooperation NRA allowed businesses to regulate themselves through codes of fair competition Did not succeed & Social Security proved lasting Alphabet Agencies

  4. Civilian Conservation Corps- CCC: Established jobs programs for unemployed young men Social Security Act- 1935: Social Security Act created a federal pension system funded by taxes on a worker’s wages & by an equivalent contribution from employers Aging of Americans (babyboomers) = a threat to Social Security Alphabet Agencies

  5. Wagner Act of 1935 National Labor Relations Act Called the Magna Carta of labor because it ensured a workers’ right to organize & bargain collectively Led to dramatic increase in labor union membership New Deal & Black Americans Helped Black Americans survive some of the worst hardships pf the Great Depression Did not directly confront racial segregation & injustice. No major action on civil rights New Deal continued…

  6. FDR & court packing • Supreme Court declared parts of New Deal unconstitutional • FDR attempted to “pack” the court to unsure New Deal would be found to be constitutional

  7. Impact of the New Deal • A program of reform, not a revolution. • New direction for federal govt= programs all demonstrated a willingness to use the govt to enhance social welfare • Programs were partially successful in reducing unemployment & reviving the economy • The New Deal lead to the emergence of the Democratic Party as the majority party • US did not fully emerge from Great Depression until massive expenditures prompted by WWII

  8. What the New Deal DID NOT include • Did not integrate the armed forces • Did not sponsor an equal rights amendment • Did not include programs specifically designed to protect the civil liberties of African Americans • Did not establish the Bureau of Indian Affairs • Did not nationalize basic industries • Did not provide for legal recognition of unions for migrant workers HINT: It is very important to remember New Deal programs & accomplishments. Equally important to know what was NOT part of the New Deal. APUSH test writers construct a number of questions asking you to identify programs that were NOT part of the New Deal

  9. New Deal Coalition • All are part of the Democratic Coalition that elected FDR in 1936: • White Southerners • African Americans • Ethnic minorities • Union members (AFL & CIO had split) • No wealthy industrialists

  10. Shift in voting • As a result of the Emancipation Proclamation & Reconstruction amendments, African Americans were loyal voters for the Republican Party • Large numbers of African American voters switched from Republican to Democrat HINT: Although New Deal was popular, it did have critics. Dr. Francis Townsend, Gerald Smith, Huey Long, Charles Coughlin all criticized aspects of the New Deal

  11. WORLD WAR II • American responses to growing threat: • Stimson Doctrine=1932: Japan invaded Chinese Manchuria. US declared they would not recognize territorial acquisitions taken by force • US failed to take action & “collective security” failed • Neutrality Acts= commitment to isolationism (went back to Washington’s message) • Lend-Lease Program=Sale of surplus military equipment to Allies (helped G.Britain & USSR resist Germany)

  12. Pearl Harbor- Reasons why? • US embargo on Japan= cut off oil, plane fuel, steel, iron. Froze US assets & halted all shipments of gas • Japan left with 2 choices: • 1. give into US demands to leave Manchuria • 2. attack Pearl then seize oil & raw materials in SE Asia while US is wounded Attack occurred when diplomacy failed HINT: Pearl is the only WWII battle to appear on an APUSH exam. However, not a bad idea to know the turning point battles- D-Day & impact and Midway & impact

  13. WWII Course of the war • Strategy- go after Germany first, defeat, then move onto full attack on Japan • Latin America- Good Neighbor Policy & FDR renounces US right to intervene & seeks greater cooperation w/Latin America • Pledged independence to Philippines-got it in 1946 • Big 3- Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill- want unconditional surrender of Germany & Japan, final meeting at Yalta in Feb 45.

  14. Wartime mobilization of the economy • Impact of military spending • Revived US economy • Preparation for war helped unemployment • US emerges from Grt. Depression • Direct price controls halt inflation • Office of Price Administration established a nationwide rationing system for consumer goods such as coffee & gas

  15. African Americans Continuing migration from rural South to urban centers in the North & West. 1.6 million left the South FDR issues executive order forbidding discrimination in defense industries Women Rosie the Riveter- industrial female workers Movement of married women into the workforce African Americans & Women HINT: Should not expect to find questions about battles and generals, you should prepare for questions about developments on the home front. Much greater chance that Rosie the Riveter will be on your test than General Patton

  16. Internment of Japanese Americans 1942 FDR orders to relocation centers Allegedly potential security threats Korematsu v. US Relocation of Japanese Americans during World War II raised constitutionality of the internment camps as a wartime necessity Upheld as constitutional due to war Civil Liberties & Civil Rights during Wartime

  17. Manhattan Project FDR authorized building bomb Truman authorizes use Truman decides to drop bomb: Thousands of lives could have continued to be lost Persuade Japan to surrender End war quickly to avoid USSR intervention Convince USSR to be cooperative in post war plans US & Atomic Bomb