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Organizational Behavior: Perception . Food Survey . Last month, a world-wide survey was conducted by the UN. The only question asked was... : "Would you please give your honest opinion about solutions to the food shortage in the rest of the world?" The survey was a huge failure because...:

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Gholipour a 2006 organizational behavior university of tehran

Organizational Behavior:

Perception

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Food survey
Food Survey

Last month, a world-wide survey was conducted by the UN.

The only question asked was... : "Would you please give your honest opinion about solutions to the food shortage in the rest of the world?"

The survey was a huge failure because...:

  • In Africa they didn't know what "food" means.

  • In Eastern Europe they didn't know what "honest" means.

  • In Western Europe they didn't know what "shortage" means.

  • In China they didn't know what "opinion" means.

  • In the Middle East they didn't know what "solution" means.

  • In South America they didn't know what "please" means.

  • In the USA they didn't know what "the rest of the world" means

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.



Perceptual process model

Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting Tehran.

Selective Attention

Organization and

Interpretation

Emotions and

Behavior

Perceptual Process Model

Environmental Stimuli

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Perception a social information processing model
Perception: A Social Tehran.Information Processing Model

Stage 1

Selective Attention/

Comprehension

Stage 2

Encoding

and Simplification

Stage 3

Storage and

Retention

Stage 4

Retrieval

and Response

A

Competing

environmental

stimuli:

* People

* Events

* Objects

B

Interpretation

and

categorization

A

Judgments

and

decisions

C

Memory

C

C

D

E

F

F

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Social information processing model of perception
Social Information Processing Tehran.Model of Perception

Stage 1: Selective Attention/Comprehension- Attention is the process of becoming aware of something or someone- People pay attention to salient stimuliStage 2: Encoding and Simplification- Encoding is the process of interpreting environmental stimuli by using information contained in cognitive categories and schemata- The same information can be interpreted differently by people due to individual differences

Stage 3: Storage and Retention- Encoded information or stimuli is sent to long- term memory- Long-term memory is composed of three compartments containing categories of information about events, semantic materials, and people

Stage 4: Retrieval and Response- Information is retrieved from memory when people make judgments and decisions

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Factors that influence perception
Factors That Influence Tehran.Perception

Characteristics of the Perceiver

Values and attitudes

Motives

Interests

Experience

Expectations

Perceptual context

Time

Work setting

Socialsetting

Perception

Characteristics of the Target

Structural beauty

Novelty and Familiarity

Motion and Change

Repetition

Intensity

Sounds

Size

Contrast and Background

Proximity

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Attribution process
Attribution Process Tehran.

  • Internal Attribution

    • Perception that outcomes are due to motivation/ability rather than situation or fate

  • External Attribution

    • Perception that outcomes are due to situation or fate rather than the person

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Kelley s model of attribution
Kelley’s Model of Attribution Tehran.

Basic Premise:An attribution is based on the consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency of the observed behavior.

  • Consensus: Involves comparing an individual’s behavior with that of his or her peers. Low consensus indicates an individual is different from peers.

  • Distinctiveness: Involves comparing a person’s behavior or accomplishments on one task with the behavior or accomplishments from other tasks. Highly distinctive behavior or results represents a situation where the current behavior or result is significantly different from typical behavior or results on other tasks.

  • Consistency: Involves comparing a person’s behavior or accomplishments on a given task over time.- High consistency implies that a person performs a certain task the same, time after time.

  • Predictions: Internal or personal attributions are made when a behavior is associated with low consensus and distinctiveness, and high consistency. - External or environmental attributions are made when a behavior is related with high consensus and distinctiveness, and low consistency.

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Consensus
Consensus Tehran.

Low

High

Individual Performance

Individual Performance

A

B

C

D

E

A

B

C

D

E

People

People

Source: KA Brown, “Explaining Group Poor Performance: an Attributional Analysis,” Academy of Management Review, January 1984, p 56. Used with permission.

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Distinctiveness
Distinctiveness Tehran.

High

Low

Individual Performance

Individual Performance

A

B

C

D

E

A

B

C

D

E

Tasks

Tasks

Source: KA Brown, “Explaining Group Poor Performance: an Attributional Analysis,” Academy of Management Review, January 1984, p 56. Used with permission.

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Consistency
Consistency Tehran.

Low

High

Individual Performance

Individual Performance

Time

Time

Source: KA Brown, “Explaining Group Poor Performance: an Attributional Analysis,” Academy of Management Review, January 1984, p. 56. Used with permission.

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Attribution errors
Attribution Errors Tehran.

  • Fundamental Attribution Error

    • Attributing behavior of other people to internal factors (their motivation/ability)

  • Self-Serving Bias

    • Attributing our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Self fulfilling prophecy cycle
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Cycle Tehran.

Supervisor

forms

expectations

Employee’s

behavior matches

expectations

Expectations

affect supervisor’s

behavior

Supervisor’s

behavior affects

employee

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Identity who am i
Identity: Who Am I? Tehran.

  • Social Identity

  • Organizational Identity

  • Personal Identity

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Perceptual biases and errors in decision making
Perceptual Biases and Errors in Decision Making Tehran.

  • Stereotype : A stereotype is an individual’s set of beliefs about the characteristics of a group of people.

  • Halo:A rater forms an overall impression about an object and then uses the impression to bias ratings about the object.

  • Leniency:A personal characteristic that leads an individual to consistently evaluate other people or objects in an extremely positive fashion.

  • Central Tendency:The tendency to avoid all extreme judgments and rate people and objects as average or neutral.

  • Recency Effects:The tendency to remember recent information. Most recent information dominates perceptions, If the recent information is negative, the person or object is evaluated negatively.

  • Contrast Effects:The tendency to evaluate people or objects by comparing them with characteristics of recently observed people or objects.

  • Primacy: First impressions

  • Projection: Believing other people are similar to you

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Perceptual biases and errors in decision making1
Perceptual Biases and Errors in Decision Making Tehran.

  • Overconfidence Error

  • Availability Heuristic

  • Representative Heuristic

  • Escalation of Commitment Error

  • Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic

  • Confirmation Bias

  • Randomness Bias

  • Hindsight Bias

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


The stereotyping process

Assign person to category Tehran.

based on observable info

Assign category’s traits

to the person

The Stereotyping Process

Develop categories

and assign traits

Professors are

absent-minded

Our instructor

is a professor

Our instructor is

absent-minded

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Improving perceptual accuracy
Improving Perceptual Accuracy Tehran.

Diversity

Initiatives

Improving

Perceptual

Accuracy

Know

Yourself

Empathize

With Others

Compare

Perceptions

With Others

Postpone

Impression

Formation

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Know yourself johari window joseph luft and harry ingham

Feedback Tehran.

Open

Area

Open

Area

Blind

Area

Blind

Area

Disclosure

Hidden

Area

Unknown

Area

Hidden

Area

Unknown

Area

Know Yourself (Johari Window)Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham

Unknown to Self

Known to Self

Known

to Others

Unknown

to Others

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Applications in organizations
Applications in Organizations Tehran.

Employment Interview

Performance Expectations

Performance Evaluation

Organizational Communication

Employee Effort

Employee Loyalty

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Gholipour a 2006 organizational behavior university of tehran

Link Between Tehran.

Perception

and

Individual Decision Making

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Gholipour a 2006 organizational behavior university of tehran

+ Tehran.

A1

T E C H

A1

A1

Set Decision

Criteria

A2

A2

A2

A3

Choice

Problem

Make Optimal

Decision

Identify and

Define Problem

A4

Criteria

An

An

An

Weight

the Criteria

Generate

Alternatives

Evaluate

Alternatives

Rational Model of Decision Making

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Gholipour a 2006 organizational behavior university of tehran

Assumptions of the Model Tehran.

One:

Problem Clarity

Four:

Constant Preferences

Two:

Known Options

Five:

No Constraints

Three:

Clear Preferences

Six:

Maximum Payoff

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Gholipour a 2006 organizational behavior university of tehran

A Model of Bounded Rationality Tehran.

Ascertain

the Need

for a Decision

Set

“Satisficing”

Criteria

Identify a

Limited Set

of Alternatives

Compare

Alternatives

Against Criteria

Select the

First “Good

Enough” Choice

Yes

Simplify

the Problem

Expand

Search for

Alternatives

A “Satisficing”

Alternative

Exists

No

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Gholipour a 2006 organizational behavior university of tehran

The Role of Tehran.

Intuition

  • Uncertainty

  • Limited Facts and Data

  • Time

  • Less Scientific Predictability

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Gholipour a 2006 organizational behavior university of tehran

Decision-Making Styles Tehran.

High

Analytic

Conceptual

Tolerance for Ambiguity

Directive

Behavioral

Low

Way of Thinking

Rational

Intuitive

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Gholipour a 2006 organizational behavior university of tehran

Reward Tehran.

Systems

Performance

Evaluations

Organizational

Constraints

Formal

Regulations

Historical

Constraints

Time

Constraints

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Gholipour a 2006 organizational behavior university of tehran

Time Tehran.

Orientation

The Value of

Rationality

Cultural

Differences

Groups or

Individuals

Problem

Identification

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.


Decision making and ethics

Utilitarian Tehran.

Rights

Justice

Decision-Making and Ethics

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.