Evaluation Methodologies in a Cleaner Production Plant Presenter: Ms. Julia Brown Manager, Process Development Scientific Research Council
Contents • Cleaner production–PRISM methodology • Planning and organization • Pre-evaluation • Plant evaluation • Feasibility Studies • Implementation • Generation of options of Cleaner product-ion
Evaluation forCleaner Production • It´s a systematic and planned procedure done with the objective of identifying the raw material, water and energy wastes sources. • Facilitates the corporative efforts to obtain uninterrupted environmental improvement in the plant operations.
Evaluation Tools • Information and evaluation compilation. • Records • Worksheets, • Procedures • Raw material, water, energy consumption indicators, residues generation • Generation options of Cleaner production • National and international bibliographic information • Manage techniques of: storm of ideas, team work
Success Elements • Support and participation of Higher Management • Evaluation equipment formed by staff of different departments • Methodology applied continually and in an ordered way.
Cleaner production methodology Cleaner production interest Planning and organization Pre-evaluation Evaluation Feasibility Studies Implementation and continuity Evaluation
Project Methodology Phase 1: Preparation Phase 2: Pre-evaluation Phase 3.C: Implementation Phase 3.B: Feasibility studies Phase 3.A: Evaluation Cleaner production necessity recognition New priority areas System changes Phase 4: Continuation Contaminant minor charges Resources earnings
Phase 1: Planning and Organization Recognized Necessity of Cleaner Production Activity 1: Obtain commitment of Management Activity 2: Organize project equipment from Cleaner production project Activity 3: Define goals of Cleaner Production in plant Activity 4: Identify barrier and solutions Established Evaluation Organization
Activity 1: Obtain the commitment of the Administration • Emphasize economical benefits! (e.g. reduction in the costs because of the efficient use of water, energy and residue reduction) • Illustrate environmental benefits! (e.g. emission reduction, residual water contaminant charge and toxic substances) • Other external benefits! (e.g. improvement in the public image of the enterprise and comply with the standing environmental laws) • Promote responsible inquiries !
Activity 2: Organize the Team of Cleaner production (1) • Team has to be able of identify solution opportunities, develop them and implement them. (Characteristics: knowledge, creativity and authority) • Size and integration of the team has to be according to the enterprise organization (5 a 8) • Team has to coordinate the Cleaner product-ion activities and the responsibility over the established goals success
Activity 2: Organize the Team of Cleaner production (2) • Suggested members of the team • Management representation. • Production Manager • Environmental area • Motivated Supervisor • Motivated Operator or technician • External Supervisor or Advisor
Activity 2: Organize the Team of Cleaner production (3) • To instruct the project team • To assure the comprehension of the Cleaner production concept between the members of the team. • To reinforce the systematic evaluation importance and records of each process stage that may give an environmental or economical impact. To enable the project team. • Create conditions for success (time, information access, etc..). • Assure the implementation of the options without any cost and low price. • To create incentives (recognitions).
Activity 3: Establish Cleaner Pro-duction Goals in the Plant • Considerations • Goals have to be appropriate and measurable. • Have to give significant environmental and/or economical improvement. • Short term goals have to be realistic. • Long term goals have to be a threat. • Indicators • Internal productivity standards. • Water consumption, energy, generation of residues. • Innovative technology. • Environmental legislation.
Activity 4: Identify Barriers (1) • Concepts and attitudes between employees and the Management. • Organizational structure of the enterprise. • Actual situation of the equipment technology in the plant. • Available and accessible information. • Financial functioning of the enterprise. • Absence ofcommunication between the different areas of the plant.
Activity 4: Identify Barriers (2) • Diffuse the cleaner production concept between the enterprise staff to facilitate: • To obtain fluid information. • Employees participation in the generation of options and its evaluation. • Effective implementation of the feasible options. • Continuity in the cleaner production activities.
Phase 2: Pre-evaluation Planning and organization Evaluation of the organization Activity 5: Flow diagram development Activity 6: Input and Output of materials evaluation Activity 7: Define the focus of the diagnostic. Evaluation
Activity 5: Diagram flow develop-ment • Identify all the unit operations or process stages. • Check Input and Output. • Relate process stages and material´s flow (incomes, forms water consumption, energy, amount of solid wastes, liquids, gaseous emissions, etc..)
Returned Bottles Soak water containing: - Caustic soda residues - detergent residues - organic and inorganic matter Water First soak by aspersion Labels + caustic solution absorbed by labels Water Caustic soda Caustic soda bath Residual bath Detergent Mud (organic or inorganic matter) Vapor Condensates (discharged) Residual bath Water Mud (organic or inorganic matter) Caustic soda Caustic soda bath Condensates (discharged) Detergent Vapor Soak by immersion Water Condensates (discharged) Vapor Water Final soak Condensates (discharged) by aspersion Vapor Washed bottles Process Flow Example
Water Batey Sugar cane Sanitary disposal Sanitary disposal Mills Fat and cooling water Bagasse Clarification Chemical excess Chemicals First froth on cane juice when bolied Water vapor Evaporation Chemicals Displacing water Cristalization Water vapor Molasses Centrifugation Sugar to Refinery Drying Standard Sugar Diagram Flow Example
Activity 6: Evaluation of Entrances and Exits of Materials (1) • In each stage of the process: enlist inputand output (raw materials, energetic and wastes) • Assign costs to input and output by raw material, water consumption, energy, residues manage, etc. • Check operation and maintenance practices. • Materials selection practices. • Used criteria for the selection of the products and incomes. • Number of products used for each stage of the process.
Activity 6: Evaluation of Entrances Exits of Materials (2) • Inventory manage practices: inventory movements of first input, first output, package conditions and storage. • Internal costs: Manage and recollection of residues, value of the incomes. Treatment facilities operation, raw material losses and intermedium products. • External costs: Discharge fares, taxes, license costs, etc..
Activity 6: Evaluation of Entrances Exits of Materials (3) • Operation and maintenance practices: • Obvious fails in the process control in the work procedures. • Spills and leaks. • Obvious lacking in equipment maintenance. Begin to improve order and cleanliness: • Obtain the support of the administration to solve obvious problems. • Communicate with the workers involved.
Output Input Process: bottles washing Raw Materials Annual Quantities (kg, m3) Annual costs $ Unit operation Secondary Products Annual costs $ Annual Quantities (kg, m3 • Soak water • Caustic soda • Detergent residues • Organic and inorganic matter • Labels • Condensates Water Soda Detergent Vapor Bottle Washing Example: evaluation of Inputand Output
Activity 7: Select the Cleaner production Diagnosis Focus (1) • Economical considerations • Economical losses related to residues • Elevated energetic consumption, tap water treated. • Technical considerations • Expected improvement potential. • Possibility to apply cleaner production standards in the operative activities. • Environmental considerations • Volume and composition of the residues. • Actual situation in the environmental management program.
Returned bottles Soak water(45ºC) containing: - caustic soda residues Soak water - detergent residues First soak - organic and inorganic matter By aspersion Reposition soft water Caustic soda Labels + caustic solution absorbed by labels Detergent Caustic soda bath Residual bath (discharge of 8 m³each 3 months) 70°C, 2.5% NaOH Vapor Mud (organic and inorganic matter) Condensates Reposition soft water Caustic soda Detergent Residual bath (discharge of 8 m³each 3 months) Baño residual (descarga de 8 m3 cada 3 meses) Caustic soda Vapor Mud (organic and inorganic matter) bath Condensates 60°C, 2.0% NaOH Soak water Soak by immersion Vapor Condensates 50°C Soak water Soft water(15°C) Vapor Final soak Condensates By aspersion 30°C Washed bottles Cleaner Production Example
Process unit Economical priority Environmen- tal priority Technical potential Other considerations Activity 7: Select the Cleaner production Diagnosis Focus (2) Residues generation Dangerous waste EIA - SETENA 1 2 3 Fuel change Other fuels costs 2 3 1 Water recovering 3 2 Treatment costs Operative report 1 3. High 2. Medium 1. Low
Pre - Evaluation Selected evaluation focus Activity 8: Make material balance Activity 9: Evaluate the causes of the residues generation, energetic inefficiency or excessive water consumption. Activity 10: Generate Cleaner production options. Activity 11: Select Cleaner production options. Cleaner Production complete options package Feasibily studies Phase 3: Evaluation
Process Input Raw materials, water, energy and others records Process Output Products,subproducts, Residues and emissions records. MakeMaterial Balance 1.- To collect information 2.- Make preliminary balance 3.- Evaluate and accurate the balance Activity 8: Make Material Balance (1)
Activity 8: Make Material Balance (2) • Divide procedures in process stages. • Information sources: • Measures in place over normal conditions of line service operations (e.g., time, temperature, pressure, flow, chemicals, water consumption, etc.) • Raw materials purchase and products sales records. • Production records
Activity 8: Make Material Balance (3) • Quality evaluation of data • Reliability • Precision • Representatively
Activity 9: Evaluation of Inefficiency Causes (1) Equipment design and its plant distribution Process Technology Product specifications Raw materials discharges of raw material intermedium products and end products Process Type and Quality of Raw materials Process capacity Equipment, operation and maintenance Materials losses
Activity 9: Evaluation of Inefficiency Causes (2) To implement obvious options: • Raw material and energy management • Production technologies and plant design • Actual situation of the maintenance operation • Optimum process conditions control • Potential water reuse and recycling • Abilities and employees motivation
Equipment modification Products formulation modification Technological change PROCEDURE Recovering & materials reuse in plant Raw materials substitution Production of usable subproducts Improvement in the process control “Clean house” practices Activity 10: Generation of Cleaner production options
Activity 10: Cleaner production generation options (1) • Information sources • Storm of ideas developed in the working team. • Ask for ideas out of the working team. • Check options of cleaner pro-duction examples. • Check technology.
Activity 11: Select Cleaner production options • Organize options for operation unit. • Evaluate obvious mutual interferences. • Implement measures obviously possible. • Eliminate those not feasible.
Phase 4: Feasibility studies Evaluation Complete options pack Activity 12: Preliminary evaluation. Activity 13: Technical evaluation. Activity 14: Economical evaluation. Activity 15: Environmental evaluation. Activity 16: Feasible selection of options. Feasible options list Implementation and Continuity
Activity 12: Preliminary evaluation Options are based on persons or in teams? Are they simple or complex? Are they cheap or expensive?
Activity 13: Technical Evaluation (1) • Verification List • Team availability and reliability. • Effect over the product quality and its productivity. • Maintenance and services requirements. • Operators and supervisors abilities.
Consumption Before Implementation After Implementation Input Raw materials Energy, Water Hand work Output Solid Residues Residual Waters Gaseous emissions Activity 13: Technical Evaluation (2)
Activity 14: Economical evaluation (1) Evaluate the economical impact of the cleaner production recommendation Investment Costs and operation benefits Realize economical calculations, (e.g., Investment recovering period) Investment Investment recovering = ------------------- Earnings Rapid method for small projects. It´s an approximate indicator for high risk projects.
Activity 14: Economical evaluation (2) Time of investment recovering: 1 year (simple project) < 3-4 years (medium cost project) > 4 years (high cost project)
Combine results of technical, economical and environmental evaluations Activity 16: Selection of the Cleaner production measurements
Feasibility Feasible options list Activity 17: Prepare a Cleaner production plan. Activity 18: Implement Cleaner production options. Activity 19: Progress advisement. Activity 20: Cleaner production sustainability. Cleaner production pursuit Phase 5: Implementation and Continuation
Option Responsible Person Implantation End date Key factors Activity 17: Cleaner production Plan
Activity 18: To Implant Cleaner Production Options • Details Preparation • Detailed technical specifications. • Appropriate planning to reduce the installation time. • Financing. • Installation. • Appropriate control of installation. • Preparation for the beginning of operation.
Activity 19: Cleaner production Progress program Advisement. • Selection of measurement method: • Changes in the amount of residues. • Changes in the resources consumption (water and energy). • Profit change. • Productivity change. • Labor conditions changes.
Activity 20: Cleaner Production Sustainability • Quantify wastes generation, water and energy consumption. • Incorporate Cleaner production in the technical development, training. • To assure that employees may get involved. • Establish a preventive maintenance program. • Verify the environmental impact of new equipments. • Cleaner production in Research and Development. • Spread the results.
Cleaner production Reduction in source Internal Recycling Product Change Process Change Entrances Substitution Good Practices Technological Modification Cleaner production strategies
Planning and Organization Plant Evaluation Implementation Feasibility Study Prism Methodology Recognize the necessity of increasing competitivity with Cleaner Production Obtain commitment from Management. Establish the evaluation organization. Propose general objectives. Overtake barriers. Begin a preliminary study. Fund obtention. Equipment installation. Advisement and evaluation of results. Project adaptation. Planning of new projects Enterprise data and its processes. Flow of materials, wastes and emissions. Create work groups. Generate Cleaner production options. Technical evaluation. Economical evaluation. Environmental evaluation. Organizational evaluation. Selection of options.