General coursedata • Coursegives 6.0 CPs (EAP), i.e. takes 156 h duringthesemestre • Division of studyactivities: • 60 h of auditory-basedwork • Lectures • Seminars • Presentations made bystudents • 96 h of independent (incl. web-based) work • ObligatorycourseforMScstudiesin • Environmental Management and Cleaner Production (Faculty of Civil Engineering) • Technology of Wood and Plastic (Faculty of Chemical and Materials Technology) • ElectivecourseforMScstudiesinChemical and Environmental Technology (Faculty of Chemical and Materials Technology) • Pre-requisite: KAK8210 Environmental Technology
Coursecontents • Inyouropinion, whatisthiscourseabout? • Sustainable/cleanerdevelopment and production • (Chemical) production and energeticsfromtheenvironmentalpoint of view • Wastes • Cleaning, utilising, reuse and recycling • Environmentallyfriendlychemistry and chemicalengineering • Lifecycleassessment • Environmental impactassessment • Pollutionprevention
Studyaims (1): uponcoursecompletion, thestudent… • Can define the key points of sustainable development. • Has been familiarised with major industrial and energetics-connected environmental challenges. • Can apply the principles of green chemistry and technology introduced in the course. • Can schematically design industrial processes with decreased discharges (incl. zero discharges), analyse existing process schemes, compare them, evaluate them critically and choose optimal solutions. • Is aware of the possibilities of different green energy sources, can compare them and find optimal implementation for the basic types of them.
Studyaims(2): uponcoursecompletion, thestudent… • Can explain the questions connected with sustainable development orally and in written form, handle respective literature and participate in respective discussions. • Is ready to take active part in civil society and to be tolerant towards different views and values. • Is ready to act in ethically complicated situations, is aware of the ethical aspects of his/her activities, possibilities, restrictions and societal role, and is prepared to provide backed evaluation to the questions concerning his/her speciality.
Courseevaluation • Twointrimexams on lecturematerials, max 30 pointseach • Fivequestions • Weeks 8 and 16 (canbeslightlyshifted) • Eachcanberepeatedonlyonce • Twotests on seminar materials, max 10 pointseach • Threequestions (calculations) • Weeks 8 and 16 (canbeslightlyshifted) • Eachcanberepeatedonlyonce • Presentation, max 20 points • Canbedoneonlyonce • Each part of thecourseisobligatory • Final mark formedbysummingupcomponentpoints • Possibility of onewrittenexamifstudentisnotsatisfiedwiththefinal mark buthasrepeatedbothinterimexams and tests
Courseliterature • Azapagic A., Perdan S., Clift R. (eds.), Sustainable development in practice, J. Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 2004 • Das T. K. (ed.), Towards zero discharge, J. Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2005 • Fresner J., Yacoob A., Half is enough, LCPC Press, Graz, Beirut, Delhi, 2006 • Jimenez-Gonzalez C., Constable D. J. C., Green chemistry and engineering, J. Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2011 • Ristinen R. A., Kraushaar J. J., Energy and the environment, J. Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2006
Major human and environmentalproblems (1) • Pollution • Ineconomicallydevelopedcountriespollutionlevelsdecrease • Manyproductionplantstransferredtoorestablishedindevelopingcountries • Rapid growth of Earth’spopulationwithoutimprovement of lifestandards • Around 15 % of the Earth’s soil isdegraded as a result of human activities, with one sixth of this beyond any possibility of restoration • Ca. 50 % of the world’s rivers are seriously depleted or polluted • Ca. 24 % of mammal and 12 % of bird species are globally threatened. • Ozone layer depletion
Major human and environmentalproblems(2) • Constantly growing concentrations of carbon dioxide, which have exceeded natural periodic fluctuations of that gas in the atmosphere (currentlyover 400 ppm) • Ca. 1.1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water and 2.4 billion to improved sanitation (mainly in Africa and Asia) • Socialinequality and poverty (2.8 billionpeoplein 2002) • Ca. 11 million children die each year of preventable causes • What are thereasonsbehindthediscussedproblems? • Whatcanbedonein order toalleviatethesituation?
„Progress“ versussustainability (1) • Forthepastfewcenturies, technological progress wasconsideredas a somewhat „shiningpath“, withurbanisationviewedas a monitor of progress • Everything aimed at increasingthelevel of commodity and whealth of people (first of all, indevelopedcountries, and not of everyoneaswell) wasviewedasbeneficial and thus „good“ • Everythingthatstoodintheway of such „progress“ waseitherdisregardedorviewedassomething „bad“ whichhadtobealteredorphysicallyexterminatedto „cleartheway“ (animals, plants, „primitive“ people, i.e. aboriginalpopulationincolonisedterritories): infewwords, ignorance and greed • Environmentwasdisregardedaswell, withthetheorythat „naturecanhandlewhatevercomesintoit“ beingfirmlyestablished
„Progress“ versussustainability(2) • Ashumanitydoeshavethecapabilitytochangeitsenvironment, humanbeingstartedtobeingviewedas „King of thenature“ • Assuch, „religion of progress“ greatlycontrastswiththeviews of manyindigenousnations, wherepeople see themselvesas part of theNature • However, „humanitymayconsideritself King of thenature, buttheNaturedoesnotknowit“, orcareforit • Actionstakenstrictlyaccordingtothe „religion of progress“ oftenhavefar-reaching and unpredictedconsequences
Urbanisation: example of AncientRome (1) • City expandedveryrapidlyinimperialtime • Freepeoplefounddoingworkunacceptable • Freebread and circusfromtheemperors • Bread: cuttingdownAppeninepeninsulaforeststoincreasearea of cropfields (togetherwithaquiringconstructionmaterials and fuel) to feed theovergrownimperialcapital • Later, thisspreadtotheprovince of Africa (mostly present Tunisia) • Outcome: environmentaldegradationinbothareas, desertificationinNorthernAfrica • Circus: severlyreducingpopulations of NorthAfricanelephants (laterextinct) and Barbarylions (slaughtereden masseduringgames)
Urbanisation: example of AncientRome(2) • Soil erosionleadto drops incropproduction, moreareaswereneededforthefields – natureoverexploited • Furthercropshortagescausedhunger and riots • Theconcept of bread and circuscorruptedRomans, disciplinefellintheonceformidablearmy • No effectiveresistanceagainstinvadingGermanictribes (smallin number butbrave, unlikecorruptedRomans), and laterHuns and theirallies • Crisis of the 3rd century (49-year longcivilwar, economidcrisis, barbarianinvasions) disruptedfoodtransportation, withepidemics and hungerreducingRoman population • Outcome: de-urbanisation • InItaly, naturesomewhatrestoreditselfbyEarlyMiddleAges • InNorthernAfrica, theprocesscouldnotbereversed
Unforseenconsequences (1) • IrrigationcanalsinMesopotamia (AntiquitytoMiddleAges) • Original aim: increasingargiculturaloutput • Consequence: soil salination and landdesertification • Couldithavebeendifferent? • Central Asianirrigationprojects (USSR, 1960s and on, presentlycontinuedbyUzbekistan and Turkmenistan) • Original aim: increasingarableareaand agriculturaloutput, especiallythat of cotton („Whitegold“) • Consequence: drying of Aral Sea • What are theconsequences of the latter? Images: NASA, Wikipedia 1964 1989 2000 2012
Unforseenconsequences(2) • Construction of Tsimlyanskreservoir on River Don (USSR, 1952) • Original aim: hydroelectricplantwithmanybeneficialoutcomes • Consequence: decrease of fishstocksinthe Sea of Azov • Why? • Alteringthecourse of LowerMissisipi (LA, USA) • Original aim: meliorationprojectsaroundNewOrleanstoclaimmoreland • Consequence: intensified soil erosion and destruction of NOLA byhurricane Katrina, withcostlyreconstruction • Why? Image adoptedfrom: http://www.eosnap.com/public/media/2011/05/fapar/20110427-fapar-full.jpg
Unforseenconsequences(3) • Use of heavierplough (fromMiddleAges), virginlandscampaign (USSR, 1950s) and similardevelopmentsinthe US (1930s) • Original aim: increasingagriculturaloutput • Consequence: erosion of mostfertile soil levels • Why? • Systematicbisonhunting/extermination (19th century USA) • Original aim: weakenNativeAmericanpopulation and forceitintoreservations, oreliminateit (US ArmyCol. R. I. Dodge: „Death of everybisonmeansdisappearance of theIndians“), „clear“ landforcattlegrowth, promoterailroadtransportation (bisonsdamagedtracksetc.) • Consequence: erosion of mostfertile soil levels • Why?
Seeingthedifference: man-made and naturalchanges (1) • Interestingexamplesmaycomefromsometimesunexpectedsources, e.g. history and architecture • Walls of Derbent (presentlyin Dagestan, Russia) reachintotheCaspian Sea, withsection of massivewall (20 m high) and towerbeing at ca. 5.5 m depthin a stormy sea • WallswerebuiltduringSassanidPersianrule (6th century AD) • Howcouldtheyhavebeenbuilt at thisdepthwithtechnologiesavailable? Image: http://www.aswetalk.org/bbs/thread-17521-1-1.html
Seeingthedifference: man-made and naturalchanges(2) • Additionalquestionshere: • Whydidtheancientauthorsreferto Aral Sea sometimesasto a sea (Oxian Sea) or lake, and sometimesin a muchdifferentway (OxianMarshes)? • Drying of Aral Sea wasalreadydiscussed. Butoldmaps show that at timesfrom 5th century BC to 17th century AD that a distributaryriverflowedfromAmuDaryaintotheCaspian Sea (Uzboy): last time, itdryedupinthe 17th century Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/13/CEM-44-La-Chine-la-Tartarie-Chinoise-et-le-Thibet-1734-Central-Asia-2574.jpg
Seeingthedifference: man-made and naturalchanges(3) • Answer: level of theinland seas of Eurasia (Caspian and Aral Seas) hasbeenperiodicallychanging (transgressions) duetopurelynaturalreasons • Solaractivitychangesaltersthecourse of AtlanticcyclonesbringingrainstoWesternEurasia • Threedifferentroutes: • Southern (cyclonestraveloverMediterranean, increasedprecipitationin Central Asiansteppes, increasedflow of AmuDarya and SyrDarya, Uzboyappears, Aral Sea levelincreases, Caspian Sea levellow • Central: increasedprecipitation Central Russia, increasedflow of Volga, Caspian Sea levelsincrease, Aral Sea leveldecreases • Northern: bothinland seas dwindle • Rise and fall of nomadicempiresisthusenvironmentalindicator
Seeingthedifference: man-made and naturalchanges(4) • Carbondioxidelevels, however, doappeartobeextraordinaryhigh • CO2concentrationgrowthcoincideswiththe start of industrialrevolution, and continues • Asitis a provengreenhousegas, evidence shows globalwarmingduetohumanactivities Image: http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fluctuations_in_temperature_and_in_the_atmospheric_concentration_of_carbon_dioxide_over_the_past_649,000_years.gif
Additionalpoints • Upto 93 % of theresourcesusedneverturnintofinalproducts • 80 % of products are discardedaftersingleuse • 99 % of thematerialsineconomiccyclesbecomeswastewithinsixweeks • Costs of wastetreatment and utilisationamountupto 40 % of theproductcost • Despitesomeimprovements, thesituationisstillbad
Wheredowegofromhere? • Aswehave seen, greatenvironmentaldamagehasbeendone • Althoughnaturalchangestakeplaceaswell, industrialdevelopmenthasplayeditsrole • Doingthings just forthe sake of „progress“, aspreviously, isthus a destructivepath • Wheredowegofromhere?
Alternative: sustainabledevelopment • “A development that meets the needs of present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs“ (UN) • “The achievement of a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come“ (UK) • Inyouropinion, isitpossibletoproduce a concrete and non-contradictorydefinition of sustainabledevelopment? • Presently, morespecificissues of sustainability are beingaddressed • Howeverwedefinesustainabledevelopment, sustainable/cleaner/greenproduction/technologyisanimportant part of it, and fareasiertodefine • Howwouldyoudefinesustainableproduction?
Sustainableproduction • “Technologies that extract and use natural resources as efficiently as possible in all stages of their lives; that generate products with reduced or no potentially harmful components; that minimise releases to air, water and soil during fabrication and use of the product; and that produce durable products which can be recovered or recycled as far as possible; output is achieved with as little energy input as is possible” (EC) • Highlyefficientmaterial and energyuse • Contrasttoend-of-pipesolutions: wastepreventioninstead of treatment • Wastesproducedduringtheprocessesshouldbeviewedmorelikerawmaterialsforotherprocesses
General sustainabilityissues • Sustainabilityin daily life • Watersustainability • Energysustainability • Sustainablemanufacture • Ecosystemsustainability • Globalsustainability or sustainability of Gaia linked to the change of climate
Sustainableproductionissues • Chemicalfeedstocks • Energyfor feedstock extraction and processing • Waterfor feedstock processing • Producingresidues of such quality and quantity that can be readily accepted by the surrounding environment without delivering harm to it