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Topic 2- Continuities in the history of hospitality provision. Managing the Hospitality Experiences Assignment 1. Topic 2 – Continuities in the history of hospitality provision. Etymology Characteristics of hospitality provision Evolution of hospitality History of hospitality
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Topic 2- Continuities in the history of hospitality provision Managing the Hospitality Experiences Assignment 1
Topic 2 – Continuities in the history of hospitality provision • Etymology • Characteristics of hospitality provision • Evolution of hospitality • History of hospitality • Hospitality as an act of transformation and incorporation
Etymology • is derived from hospice, the term for a medieval house of rest for travellers and pilgrims” (Powers 2003 p4). • The meaning of Ghos-ti refers to stranger, guest and host (O’Gorman 2007 p17). • Ghos-ti has also been evolved from the Latin word “hostis, meaning enemy, army and where host (multitude) and hostile find their origins” (O’Gorman 2005 p142).
Hospitality Provision throughout History • The hospitality industry “is one of the oldest businesses in history, people have always gone out to eat sometimes and travelled for work or leisure purpose” (Gailliard 1998 p95). • The hospitality industry has not changed a large amount since the earliest time, its provision has been increasingly codified. As societies become more sophisticated, the codification of hospitality provides reference points for how to treat a range of guest/strangers, according to a variety of criteria (O’Gorman 2005 p149). Photo from crystallink.com 2009
Evolution of Hospitality • Near east text • The first evidence of hospitality in history has been seen in “the oldest collection of texts that refers to hospitality are from a literary gene known as Ancient Near East text” (O’Gorman 2007 p18). • Ancient Neat east text there are “certain works date back to around 3500 BC, therefore that are as old as the history of writing itself” (O’Gorman 2007 p18). Photo from Carr 2010
Evolution of Hospitality • throughout the ancient times “publicans and their houses were held in general contempt… conducting a tavern was a low form of occupation, and the running of such establishments was usually entrusted to slaves” (The Evolution of the hospitality industry1985 p36). • The evolution of hospitality has changed “as a result of increased travel and the emergence of commercial provision to support travellers has developed” (Lashley, Lynch and Morrison 2007 p7). One of the Taverns that was in London during the Middle Ages. Photo from Shelley 2005
Hospitality in Religion • “hospitality is central to virtually all of Old Testament ethics: God, the great host, invites his guest into his house, the created world, to enjoy its riches and blessings” (O’Gorman 2007 p20). • feel like they're not strangers, like they 'belong.' Of course, this makes God the most hospitable person we know -- He certainly went to the ultimate length to make us feel like we belong (The Intelligent Christian 1999). • Tithe Barn in Kent England where the church would store food during Winter. Photo from History Learning.co 2010
Hospitality in Religion • Christian population “could count on finding in every large population centre a Christian church or fellowship that would welcome them, make them feel at home, and give them any immediately needed service” (The Intelligent Christian 1999). • Monks praying Photo from Sundas 1997
Early Traders • Sumerians “a group of people who inhabited an area known as Mesopotamia, near the Persian Gulf, by about 4000BC” (Dittmer 2002 p36). • “Sumerians are often credited with inventing money and writing, both critical elements in the evolution of business” (Dittmer 2002 p36) • These were drinking establishments, catering to people who lived in the immediate neighborhood. These taverns served various beers and provided a gathering place for local residents to discuss the issues of the day (Dittmer 2002 p36). Photo from Ancient Scrpts.com 2010
Egyptian Empire • The Egyptian Empire with the political entity was “government was headed by a pharaoh, their term for a King” (Dittmer 2002 p38) • pyramids are “monuments and structures that have attained prominence as attractions” (Lawton and Weaver 2006 p137) • “An inscription, caved into the side of one of the lesser known pyramids and dated 1244 BCE, is among the earliest examples of tourist graffiti” (Lawton and Weaver 2006 p57). Pyramids built by Giza one of the King’s The river Nile Photos from The British Museum 1999
Ancient Greece • “honouring the Gods, which was so essential, so fundamental to civilised life, that its patron was the God of Gods, Zeus himself; Zeus is the protector of supplians and guests Zeus Xeinios, who attends to revered guests (Homer, Odyssey 9:270-71)” (O’Gorman 2007 p20). • “Good restaurants located in major cities to serve the needs of travellers, the inns and taverns in Greek were reputed to be particularly dreadful places” (Dittmer 2002 p39) Zeus in a bronze sculpture The Parthenon temple in Greece one of the earliest temples built. Photos from Ancient Greece.org 2010
Roman Empire The colosseum one of the entertainment facilities during the Roman Empire Ancient Rome housing and shop fronts. • throughout the city the front gates of the houses were thrown open and all sorts of things placed for general use of hospitality, lead to long lasting friendship between the host and guest (O’Gorman 2007 p23). • hospitality “seemed even more sacred and to have greater claims upon the host than that of a person connected by blood or affinity” (O’Gorman 2005 p145) Photos from Crystallink.com 2010 and Matthews 2010
Middle ages in England • The people of England “petitioned parliament and, the king interfered accordingly with his accustomed useless goodwill. Edward III … [publicize] a statue to constrain ‘hostelers et herbergers’ to sell food at reasonable prices” (The Evolution of the hospitality industry1985 p36). • “any householder might receive a stranger for the night” (The Evolution of the hospitality industry1985 p36) King Edward III Photo from Soylent Communications.org 2010
Act of Transformation and incorporation • The Ritz hotel in England one of today's most pristine hotels in the world • “change[d] over time as a result of modernity or increased contact with tourists” (Lashley, Lynch and Morrison 2007 p2). • The increased number of people travelling as well as the emergence of commercial provision for the travellers the obligations of the locals changes (Lashley, Lynch and Morrison 2007 p7). Photo from The Ritz Hotel 2007
Conclusion Hospitality Industry has Changed over time • one of the many accommodation found around the world today • One of the Taverns that was in London during the Middle Ages. Photos from Shelley 2005 and Triology Surfers Paradise 2010
Reference list • Ancient Greece.org 2010, ‘Parthenon’ Viewed 17th August 2010 < http://www.ancient-greece.org/architecture/parthenon.html> • Ancient Scipts.com 2010, ‘Sumerian’, Viewed 18th August 2010 <http://www.ancientscripts.com/sumerian.html> • Crystallink.com 2009, ‘Roman Transportation’, Viewed 18th August 2010 < http://www.crystalinks.com/rometransportation.html > • Crystallink.com 2010 ‘Ancient Rome Buildings and Homes’, Viewed 18th August 2010 <http://www.crystalinks.com/romebuildings.html> • Dittmer, P 2002, ‘Chapter 2: Hospitality Foundation I: Early Development of the Hospitality Industry’, in Dimensions of the Hospitality Industry, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, PP. 29-65
Reference list • Dr Carr. K 2010,’Epic of Gilgamesh’, Portland, USA, Viewed 17th August 2010<http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/westasia/literature/gilgamesh.htm> • Gailliard, F 1998, ‘The Hospitality Industry’, Black Collegian, Vol 28, No 2, p95-97 • Historylearningsite.co.uk, ‘Medieval Church’, Viewed 18th August 2010 <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/medieval_church.htm> • King, C.A, 1995, ‘What is hospitality? ’, International Journal of hospitality management, Vol 14, no 3-4, p219-234 • Lashley, C, Lynch, P and Morrison, A 2007, ‘Hospitality: An Introduction’, in Hospitality- A Social Lens, edn Lashley, C, Lynch, P and Morrison, A, Elsevier Science, Oxford, Great Britain, p1-16
Reference list • Lawton. L and Weaver, D 2006, ‘Tourism Management’, 3rdEdn, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, Milton, QLD • Matthews. K 2010, ‘Roman Colosseum’, Great buildings, Viewed 16th August 2010 <http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Roman_Colosseum.html> • O’Gorman, K 2005, ‘Modern Hospitality: Lessons from the Past’, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Vol 12, no 2, p141-151 • O’Gorman, K.D 2007, ‘Dimensions of Hospitality: Exploring Ancient and Classical Origins’, in Hospitality- A Social Lens, edn Lashley, C, Lynch, P and Morrison, A, Elsevier Science, Oxford, Great Britain, p17-32 • Powers, T.F 2003, ‘Hospitality industry and you’, in Introduction to Management in the Hospitality Industry, 7thedn Powers, T.F, and Barrows, C. W, John Wiley and Sons Inc, New York, p3-29
Reference list • Selwyn, T 2000, ‘An anthropology of hospitality’, in In Search of Hospitality: Theoretical Perspectives and debates, edn Lashley, C and Morrison, A.J, Butterworth- Heinemann, Oxford, Great Britain, p18-37 • Shelley, H.C 2005, ‘Inns and taverns of Old London’, Viewed 18th August 2010 <http://www.buildinghistory.org/primary/inns/> • Soylent Communications.org 2010 ‘King Edward III’ Viewed 17th August 2010 <http://www.nndb.com/people/315/000093036/> • Sundas. S 1997 ‘Monks and Nuns in the Middle Ages’, Viewed 18th August 2010 <http://www.kyrene.org/schools/brisas/sunda/ma/1lisa.htm> • The British Museum 1999, ‘Ancient Egypt’ Viewed 16th August 2010 < http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/menu.html>
Reference list • ‘The Evolution of the Hospitality industry’ 1985, The Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, vol26, No1, p36-86 • The Intelligent Christian 1999, ‘Hospitality’, Viewed 2nd August 2010 <http://www.intelligentchristian.org/Hospitality.html> • The Ritz Hotel 2007, ‘The Ritz London’, London, Great Britain Viewed 18th August 2010 <http://www.theritzlondon.com/gallery/index.asp> • Triology Surfers Paradise 2010, ‘Triology Surfers Paradise’, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, Australia Viewed 20th August 2010 <http://www.goldcoastinformation.com.au/stayat/trilogysurfersparadise/> • Walton, J.K 2000, ‘The Hospitality Trades: a social history’, in In Search of Hospitality: Theoretical Perspectives and debates, edn Lashley, C and Morrison, A.J, Butterworth- Heinemann, Oxford, Great Britain, p56-76