What is ‘Civilization’? • The word “civilization” comes from the Latin word for townsman or citizen, civis. • To be “civilized” meant to be someone who was a citizen and was being governed by the constitution and legal statues of a particular community.
Who were the first people? • Hunters & Gatherers who lived in nomadic communities. • They learned to adapt to the land so that they could survive without having a permanent abode. • They had no Wal-Mart or HEB. They relied on instincts and each other to survive.
The Rise of Civilization • The first known “Civilized Society” was Mesopotamia. • They rose up in modern-day Iraq between the Tigris and the Euphrates river. • Mesopotamians were known for their city, writing systems, arts, animal domestication, and the ability to create complex social structures.
Steps to becoming Civilized • There came a time when hunters and gatherers realized that they did not have to move all of the time to survive. • This came when they realized the benefits of managing water supply. • The idea that they could modify the land to help irrigate crops was one of the first steps to civilization.
Steps to becoming Civilized • Once they were able to modify the land to manage water, agriculture occurred. • They were able to grow crops that they wanted as well as domesticate animals. • This gave them a surplus of food. • This is the second step to civilization
Steps to becoming Civilized • Once crops were grown and beasts of burden were domesticated, the work had to be divided up. • The division of labor was where tasks were assigned to those with the skills to do them. • This helped to create more surplus of food.
Steps to becoming Civilized • The division of labor, the third step of becoming a civilized society, allowed for the once nomadic people to evolve and get out of ‘survivor mode’.
Steps to becoming Civilized • Step four to becoming a civilization was creating permanent homes. • Cities started to grow as hunting and gathering was no longer required to survive. • This lead to what is known as infrastructure.
Steps to becoming Civilized • Infrastructure is the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization. • In this case the framework of cities such as homes, roads, waste management, expansion, etc…
Steps to becoming Civilized • The fifth and final step encompasses a combination of many different events. • Creating a system of writing helped to lead to rules and regulations to follow within the city. • Hammurabi’s Code is one of the first known forms of written rules, now known as laws.
Steps to becoming Civilized • The creation of a writing system helped paved the way for Governments to form as well as a more organized forms of religion. • This helps to set up different systems for social, political, and cultural groups within a community.
Steps to becoming Civilized • The five steps to becoming a civilized society are as followed: • 1) Modifications • 2) Domestication (surplus) • 3) Division of Labor (Out of Survivor Mode) • 4) Cities (infrastructure) • 5) Writing leads to Government/Religious Beliefs
Vocabulary • Agriculture- • Irrigation Systems • Domestication • the production of crops, livestock, or poultry • the artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops • to convert (animals, plants, etc.) to domestic uses; tame.
Vocabulary • Civilization- • Fertile Crescent- • Cuneiform- • an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached. • an agricultural region extending from the Levant to Iraq. • composed of slim triangular or wedge-shaped elements, as the characters used in writing by the ancient Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and others.
Vocabulary • Hieroglyphics- • Social Hierarchy- • Surplus- • designating or pertaining to a pictographic script, particularly that of the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are conventionalized, recognizable pictures of the things represented. • any system of persons or things ranked one above another • something that remains above what is used or needed.