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Intelligence (Chapter 11). Lecture Outline : History of intelligence IQ and normal distributions Measurement. Psychophysical Energy, sensitivity to physical stimuli Galton (1883) and later Cattell (1890) proposed psychophysical tests measured ability Contribution: Psychometrics.

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Intelligence chapter 11

Intelligence (Chapter 11)

Lecture Outline:

History of intelligence

IQ and normal distributions


Two views of intelligence


Energy, sensitivity to physical stimuli

Galton (1883) and later Cattell (1890) proposed psychophysical tests measured ability

Contribution: Psychometrics

Mental judgement

Good sense, practical sense, initiative, reasoning

Binet & Simon (1916) diagnosed “mental defectives” in Paris

Contribution: Testing and IQ

Two Views of Intelligence

What is an intelligence quotient
What is an Intelligence Quotient?

  • IQ = (MA / CA) X 100

  • MA = Mental age, CA = Chronological age

  • 8 year old with MA of 12 has IQ of 150

  • Problem across life span, such as someone age 30 with MA of someone 45

What is intelligence
What is intelligence?

  • Goal directed adaptive behavior

  • IQ tests define a domain of skills necessary to succeed in school

What is the environment being adapted to?

What is the goal?

What is the goal?

Assessing intelligence
Assessing intelligence

  • Stanford Binet- Revised: Short-term memory, Verbal, Quantitative, and Figural Abstract Reasoning

  • Wechsler Scales: Verbal, Performance, and Total IQ scores (WAIS-III, WISC-III, WPPSI)

  • Individually administered in standard fashion

  • Environment was controlled so that other explanations of performance (e.g., bored, poor vision, nervous, cold) could be addressed

Validity example of sat
Validity: Example of SAT

  • Face validity: Does the test make sense?

  • Predictive validity: Does it predict Acadia grades?

  • Concurrent validity: Were they related to Grade 12 grades?

  • Construct validity: Does the SAT measure the construct it is supposed to measure?


  • Test-retest: Take the same test

  • Alternate forms: Two forms, such as early Stanford-Binet

  • Internal consistency: The extent to which items measure the same thing - psychophysical measures did not

  • Inter-rater reliability: Do 2 people score things the same?

Intelligence chapter 111

Intelligence (Chapter 11)

Second Lecture Outline:

Theoretical models

Cultural context

Diagnostic issues


  • Aptitude: Ability to learn in a specific area

  • Achievement: What is already learned in an area

  • Psychometric: Psychological measurement

  • Metacognition: Understanding and control of thought processes

Cattell s 1971 two subfactors

Fluid intelligence

Understanding abract and novel relations

Inductive reasoning and analogies

Creative relationships

Crystallized Intelligence

Accumulation of knowledge

Vocabulary and general information

Knowing lots of “stuff”

Cattell’s (1971) Two Subfactors

Lawyer courtroom surgeon a operating room b medicine
Lawyer : Courtroom :: Surgeon : (a. Operating Room b. Medicine)

  • Information Processing in complex tasks -- bright people plan tasks

  • First, you must infer a relationship between lawyer and courtroom

  • Second, you must map the first part of the analogy to the second part

  • Third, you must apply the inferred relationship to determine the final term

Lateral thinking puzzles
Lateral thinking puzzles Medicine)

  • Q: Deep in the forest was found the body of a man who was wearing only swimming trunks, snorkel and facemask. The nearest lake was 8 miles away and the sea was 100 miles away. How had he died?

  • A: During a forest fire, a fire-fighting plane had scooped up some water from the lake to drop on the fire. The plane had accidentally picked up the unfortunate swimmer.

  • Q: A man pushed his car. He stopped when he reached a hotel at which point he knew he was bankrupt. Why?

  • A: He was playing Monopoly.

  • Q: A man died and went to Heaven. There were thousands of naked people there and all looked as they did at the age of 21. He looked around to see if there was anyone he recognised. He saw a couple and he knew immediately that they were Adam and Eve. How did he know?

  • A: He recognized Adam and Eve as the only people without navels. Because they were not born of women, they had never had umbilical cords and therefore they never had navels.

Cultural context of intelligence
Cultural context of intelligence Medicine)

  • Kpelle tribe of Africa sorted words by function rather than hierarchically

  • Chi-Chewa tribe of Zambia have phrase nzelu that incorporates intelligence with wisdom and responsibility

  • In the United States, immigrants typically do less well on intelligence tests: cultural content of items

  • “Snow” in the Arctic

Extremes of intelligence

Mental Retardation is at low end Medicine)

Dx when IQ and adaptive behavior is low

Mild 50-70

Moderate 35-55

Severe 20-40

Profound <25

Gifted at high end

1% have IQ > 135

Terman’s longitudinal study documenting “success” of men with IQ >140

School program

Mensa: IQ 130 or 98th percentile

Extremes of intelligence

Heritability of intelligence
Heritability of Intelligence Medicine)

  • Separated identical twin studies

  • Identical (100%) vs. Fraternal (50%) twin studies

  • Adoption studies comparing birth to adoptive parents

  • Heritability of intelligence is around 50% due to polygenic inheritance