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Gender Role Development. Introduction Categorizing males and females Sex-role standards or stereotypes Cross-cultural trends Facts and fictions about sex differences Sex differences that appear to be real Cultural myths Developmental trends in sex typing Development of Gender Identity

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gender role development
Gender Role Development
  • Introduction
    • Categorizing males and females
      • Sex-role standards or stereotypes
      • Cross-cultural trends
    • Facts and fictions about sex differences
      • Sex differences that appear to be real
      • Cultural myths
  • Developmental trends in sex typing
    • Development of Gender Identity
      • Discrimination of male versus female
      • Development of gender constancy
    • Acquiring Gender-role Stereotypes
    • Development of Gender-typed Behavior
  • Theories of sex-typing and gender role development
    • The biological approach
    • The psychoanalytic approach
    • Social learning theory
      • Direct tuition
      • Observational learning
    • Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental theory
    • Martin & Halverson’s gender schema theory
categorizing males and females
Categorizing Males and Females
  • Sex-role or gender-role standards:
    • A value, motive, or class of behavior that is considered more appropriate for members of one gender than the other
    • Girls and the expressive role
    • Boys and the instrumental role
gender typing in non industrialized societies
Gender Typing in Non-Industrialized Societies

Sex differences in the socialization of five attributes in 110 non-industrialized societies

Percent of societies in which socialization pressures were greater for:

Attribute Boys Girls

Nuturance 0 82

Obediance 3 35

Responsibility 11 61

Achievement 87 3

Self-Reliance 85 0

Source: Barry, Bacon, & Child (1957)

facts and fictions about gender differences
Facts and Fictions About Gender Differences
  • Actual differences between the genders
    • Verbal ability: Girls have greater verbal abilities than boys
    • Visual/Spatial ability: Boys outperform girls in visual/spatial tasks
gender differences in visual spatial ability
Gender Differences in Visual-Spatial Ability

Mental rotation and Water Level tasks:

facts and fictions about gender differences con t
Facts and Fictions About Gender Differences, con’t
  • Actual differences between the genders
    • Verbal ability: Girls have greater verbal abilities than boys
    • Visual/Spatial ability: Boys outperform girls in visual/spatial tasks
    • Mathematical ability
      • Beginning in adolescence, boys show small but consistent advantage in arithmetic reasoning
      • The role of social factors?
    • Aggression: Boys are more physically and verbally aggressive than girls
facts and fictions about gender differences con t1
Facts and Fictions About Gender Differences, con’t
  • Differences that may be real:
    • Activity level: Boys are more physically active than girls
    • Fear, timidity, and risk taking: Girls or more timid than boys
    • Developmental vulnerabilities
      • Boys are more physically vulnerable than girls
      • Boys are more likely to display developmental problems
    • Emotional expressivity:
      • Girls are more emotionally expressive than boys
      • Empathetic sensitivity?
    • Compliance: Girls are more compliant than boys
developmental trends in gender typing
Developmental Trends in Gender Typing
  • Development of the gender concept:
    • Discrimination of males versus females
    • Children’s knowledge of boys versus girls
    • Gender constancy
  • Development of gender-role stereotypes:
    • Timing of gender stereotypes
    • Growth of gender stereotypes during preschool and elementary school
    • How serious are gender-role prescriptions?
    • Flexibility in gender stereotypes
  • Development of gender-typed behavior:
    • Sex appropriateness of play
    • Gender segregation
      • Preference for same sex playmates
      • Why does segregation occur?
theories of gender typing biological and psychoanalytic
Theories of Gender TypingBiological and Psychoanalytic
  • Biological approach:
    • The role of genetic and hormonal differences
    • Sex-linked constitutional factors and the environment
  • Freud’s Psychoanalytic approach:
    • The process of identification
    • Evidence for and against Freudian theory
theories of gender typing social learning and cognitive development
Theories of Gender TypingSocial Learning and Cognitive-Development
  • Social learning theory:
    • Direct tuition
      • Parents, teachers, etc., reinforce sex-appropriate responses
      • Do parents shape behavior?
    • Observational learning
      • Learning of sex-typed attitudes by observing same-sex models
      • Why might children preferentially attend to same-sex models
        • Reinforcement
        • Perception of similarity
  • Kohlberg’s Cognitive-Developmental theory:
    • Cognitive judgments about self precede selective attention or identification
    • Stages of understanding gender
      • Basic gender identity
      • Gender stability
      • Gender consistency
    • Problems with theory
theories of gender typing gender schema theory
Theories of Gender TypingGender Schema Theory
  • Martin & Halverson’s Gender Schema theory:
    • Information processing theory of sex-typing
      • Children motivated to acquire values consistent with judgments about self
      • Self-socialization begins when children get basic gender identity
    • Development of gender schemas
      • In group / Out group schema
      • Own sex schema
    • Gender schemas as organizers of social information