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Integrating health concerns into transport policies: from the Charter on Transport, Environment and Health to the Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European (THE PEP). F. Racioppi World Health Organization European Centre for Environment and Health, Rome. Overview.

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f racioppi world health organization european centre for environment and health rome

Integrating health concerns into transport policies: from the Charter on Transport, Environment and Health to the Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European (THE PEP)

F. Racioppi

World Health Organization

European Centre for Environment and Health, Rome

overview
Overview
  • Overview of tranport-related health effects
  • The “Charter on Transport, Environment and Health”
  • From the Charter to THE PEP
    • Joint WHO UNECE “Synthesis report”
    • 1st High Level Meeting
  • THE PEP: a joint WHO UNECE way forward
transport policies have a broad range of health effects
Transport policies have a broad range of health effects

International Herald Tribune, 16 April 2003 – pg 6

slide4

Transport-related health effects are very large External costs of transport in western Europe: Euro 658 billion (1995)(INFRAS/IWW, 2000)

road safety in europe at a glance source who and unece
Road safety in Europe at a glance(source: WHO and UNECE)
  • Deaths: 121,000/year
  • Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs): nearly 3.8 million
  • Injuries: more than 2,4 million/year
  • 65 % of accidents happens in the urban environment (only 5 % on highways)
  • More than 30 % of deaths involve young people (< 29 yo)
  • Costs (in the EU15): more than Eur 166 billion/year ca. 2.0 % GDP
slide6

In European High Income countries, road injuries are the leading cause of death for people aged 5-44 years (source: WHO - Global Burden of Disease project for 2000)

slide7

In European Low-Medium Income countries, road injuries are among leading causes of death(source: WHO - Global Burden of Disease project for 2000)

air pollution
Air pollution
  • Air pollution is estimated to cause some 100,000 premature deaths in the Region
  • In many NIS cities transport is responsible for up to 75% of total emission of selected pollutants, and is solely responsible for air toxins like benzo(a)pyrene and soot.
  • Data on pollution levels confirm high exposure of the urban population to traffic emissions
  • Annual mean values of TSP ranging from 100 to 400 micrograms per cubic meter are quite common in bigger cities of the NIS
noise interferes with memory attention and ability to deal with analytical problems
Noise interferes with memory, attention and ability to deal with analytical problems
  • About 65% of the European population (450 million) is exposed to noise levels exceeding 55 dB(A)Leq over 24 hours
  • Children chronically exposed to loud noise show impaired acquisition of reading skills, attention and problem-solving ability
  • Road traffic is the major source of exposure to noise
slide11

Physical inactivity is (with diet) a leading cause of the epidemic of obesity observed among children(Source: International Obesity Task Force, 2002)

slide12

The attributable fraction of mortality from physical inactivity is estimated in the range of 5 – 10 % of total mortality(WHO, World Health Report 2002)

Source: International Obesity Task Force, 2002

health benefits of physical activity 30 minutes day
Health benefits of physical activity (30 minutes/day)
  • 50 % reduction in the risk of coronary health disease, type II diabetes and obesity
  • Reduction in the risk of developing hypertension and in blood pressure
  • Help to protect against osteoporosis
  • Improve balance, coordination, mobility, strength, endurance
  • Increase self-esteem, promote overall psychological wellbeing
who programme on transport environment and health
WHO programme on Transport, Environment and Health
  • Facilitates the integration of health considerations in decisionsaffecting transport
  • Promotes the implementation of strategies that address simultaneously all the environmental and health impacts of transport
  • Informs on the evidence for the health effects of transport
  • Provides tools and methods to assist Member States in integrating health concerns into transport-related decisions
the process to the charter
The process to the Charter
  • Political
  • 4 Negotiation meetings
  • Participation of member States, Inter-government Organizations and Non-Government Organizations
  • Case-studies
  • Environmental health impacts of transport and their economic costs
  • Italy
  • France
  • Austria
  • Switzerland
  • Scientific
  • Review the evidence
  • Identify targets from
  • technicalperspective

CHARTER

- Principles,

-Targets

- Plan of action

the charter on transport environment and health
The Charter on Transport, Environment and Health

Adopted by Ministers of Transport, Environment and Health at the 3rd Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health (London, 16-18 June 1999)

Contains:

Health targets for reducing injuries, air and noise pollution and increasing opportunities for physical exercise through walking, cycling and use of public transport

Principles for Transport Sustainable for Health and the Environment

Plan of action for the Charter implementation

Emphasizes the need to address all health impacts of transport policies as part of the same interventions

Establishes a Steering Group of MSs, IGOs and NGOs to facilitate its implementation

the charter and further policy developments
The Charter and further policy developments
  • The Charter promoted enhanced co-operation with other inter-government organizations, in particular by calling on the WHO and UNECE to:

“Provide an overview of relevant existing agreements and legal instruments, with a view to improving and harmonizing their implementation and further developing them as needed”

slide19

From the Charter to THE PEP:The Joint WHO - UN/ECE“Overview of instruments relevant to Transport, Environment and Health and Recommendations for Further Steps”

  • Recommended further integration of policies, and specific consideration of all health impactsthrough:
    • Development of a new instrument, e.g.Framework Convention on TEH
    • Further development of existing instruments
    • Enhanced cooperation with other organisations
from the charter to the pep 1st high level meeting on transport environment and health 4 may 2001
From the Charter to THE PEP1st High Level Meeting on Transport,Environment and Health – 4 May 2001
  • Decided to set up a tripartite Task Force to identify the possible elements of a Framework Convention on TEH
  • Endorsed the approach on rationalization of the UNECE Vienna Plan of Joint Action (POJA) and WHO London Charter follow-up processes and on prioritisation of the related work
  • Post-poned the decision regarding the starting the negotiation of a Framework Convention on Transport, Environment and Health to a Second High Level Meeting to be convened in 2002, before the Rio 10+ meeting
transport health and environment pan european programme the pep
Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP)
  • Adopted at the 2nd High Level Meeting on Transport, Environment and Health (Geneva, 5 July 2002)
  • Launched at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, September 2002)
  • Consolidates and rationalizes work carried out under the auspices of UNECE and WHO/Euro
  • Identifies the following priorities for action:
    • Integration of environmental and health aspects into transport policy;
    • Demand side management and modal shift;
    • Urban transport
    • Cross-cutting issues:
      • specific needs of the Newly Independent States (NIS) and South Eastern European Countries
      • issues related to ecologically particularly sensitive areas, and groups at higher risk, such as Children
1 st sg meeting of the pep geneva 10 11 april 2003
1st SG Meeting of THE PEP Geneva,10-11 April 2003
  • Discussed and adopted a work plan for the period 2003-2005, focusing on:
    • Establishment of a Clearing House on Transport, Health and Environment (in English and Russian)
    • Elaboration and implementation of urban plans for transport sustainable for health and the environment (Workshop in Cyprus in Novemebr 2003)
    • Development of methods to estimate transport related health impacts and their costs
      • In collaboration between Austria, France, the Netherlands, Malta, Sweden, Switzerland,
    • Establishment of a set of indicators to monitor the integration of environmental and health aspects into transport policies and the impact of the policies on health and the environment
the effects of the charter for international policy developments
The effects of the CharterFor International Policy developments
  • THE PEP and its launch of at the WSSD in Johannesburg
  • EU Parliament Resolution on Transport and Health
  • Influence on the negotiation of the protocol on SEA to the Espoo Convention
slide24
A European Parliament Resolution2001/2067(INI) Final A5-0014/2002, 22 January 2002, adopted on 28 February 2002.
  • Drawing from the WHO and UNECE policy analysis, the European Parliament adopted a resolution calling for:
    • “a stronger integration of health considerations into transport policies, including by carrying out health impact assessment of major transport projects”
the effects of the charter for member states based on the evaluation of the charter implementation
The effects of the CharterFor member States – based on the Evaluation of the Charter Implementation
  • Facilitated and/orstarted a cross-sectoral dialogue at the national level.
  • Contributed to bring out the healthimplications of transport policies
  • Promoted a greater integration of health arguments in the transport and environment agenda at the national level
the effects of the charter for research and methodological developments
The effects of the CharterFor Research and Methodological developments
  • Guidelines for HIA of transport policies and of effects of changes in levels of walking and cycling
  • Research on integrated approaches to modelling the health effects of urban transport policies
    • HEARTS (Health Effects and Risks of Transport Systems)
    • ISHTAR (Integrated Software for Health, Transport efficiency and Artistic Heritage Recovery)
  • Developments on economic valuations of transport health effects
    • Further development of the Swiss-Austrian-French study
challenges to the implementation
Challenges to the implementation
  • Lack of resources and awareness among actors at the national and sub-national level
  • Limited cross-sectoral co-operation
  • Lack of enforcement tools
  • Other (binding) processes have been the real “driving force” for many actions
  • Modest involvement of the health sector
  • Difficult to strenghten the involvement of countries with economies in transition
    • Lack of financial resources to support an active participation
    • Language barrier – limited availability of texts translated into Russian