Chemical Castration Of Sex Offenders. A Brief history of castration. Castration is not a new issue. Castration has been around for millennia. Eunuchs of the Ancient World Castrati of Italian Opera (Right: Alessandro Moreschi ). Different types of Castration.
Castration is not a new issue Castration has been around for millennia. Eunuchs of the Ancient World Castrati of Italian Opera (Right: Alessandro Moreschi)
Different types of Castration Three Physical Methods, including: Surgical Castration: Removal of the Vas Deferens The Burdizzo Method: Utilizes a plier-like device to crush vas deferens and arteries leading to testes. The Bonding and Cutting Method: Extremely tight elastic binding scrotum, subsequently cut off and removed
Chemical Castration Chemical Castration is different from Physical Castration. Similar to hormonal contraceptives used by women Series of drugs administered over time at regular intervals Actually utilizes MPA, commonly known as Depo-Provera, a very common contraceptive for womena Meant to decrease sex drive and libido Halts production of sperm Makes it very difficult, if not impossible to perform sexual acts.
Where is IT Practiced? Practiced specifically for the control and punishment of sex offenders in many countries throughout the world. Highly publicized cases in South Korea in recent years. Likened to “Cutting off the hand of the thief.” While some consider this punishment to be fair, it is not without controversy.
Controversy surrounding chemical castration
Controversy The procedure clearly works as intended. The number of re-offenses dramatically decreases with the implementation of chemical castration. The sex drive is also radically reduced. But, as with any procedure, or medicine administration, there are side effects.
Side Effects of Chemical castration Osteoporosis Changes in: Cardiovascular Health Blood Pressure Blood Fat Other symptoms similar to those of menopause
Controversy While the procedure of Chemical castration is undoubtedly effective, many qualms still surround it. There is a major question of human rights- should all sex offenders automatically be castrated? Many officials believe it should be implemented voluntarily, and on a case-by-case basis.
Ethical Implications Many argue that after sexual assault has been done, the offender no longer has a right to control their own sexual appetites and drives any longer. These are the people that call for the castration of every offender without second glance. While there is no excuse for sexual assault, one must consider that there are differences in the degrees of assault. The major argument against chemical castration is that it would be against one’s inalienable rights.
Chemical Castration in the United States
Federal implementation There are still some things to be considered. Chemical castrations are strongly opposed by the ACLU, which deems it “Cruel and Unusual Punishment”. The outcome of federal implementation is also very difficult to predict.
Chemical Castration in the U.S. Only implemented in a handful of states: California Iowa Georgia Louisiana Montana Oregon Texas Wisconsin
Legal terminology California is a prime example of the law that could be enacted by other states, saying simply that “Sex offenders convicted of an offense against a child under the age of 13 may be treated with Depo Provera when on parole. If it is their second offense, they may nothave the option to reject the treatment.” Many other states follow this apparent “two-strikes” rule.
Incarceration Comparitively, incarceration of sex offenders costs taxpayers much more, with little improvement after release. In more than 97% of cases, sex offenders go on to reoffend after release. This is compared to the castrated sex offender’s re-offense rate of less than 3%. Many sex offenders request the procedure themselves
Incarceration The cost of incarceration of one sex offender for one year is $23,876.00, according to the U.S. penitentiary Compare this to the cost of castration, both chemical or surgical, which is between $2000.00-4000.00. Considering overcrowding, lack of funding, and genuine desire for these sex offenders to not reoffend, chemical castration is a viable option.
Cases around the world
Real Life examples England: August 2009 100 prisoners at Whatton prison, a specialist prison for sex offenders in Nottinghamshire The scheme is entirely voluntary. Some wait up to 3 years to get treatment Reduce desires from anywhere from 5%-40% (Evidence from Scandinavia trials) drug used was Prostap- makes it so testosterone levels for recipient are those close to the testosterone levels of prepubescent children The scheme has government backing. The Ministry of Justice said: "We support the use of pharmaceutical interventions for high risk sex offenders given the evidence that it can be useful in reducing risk for some perpetrators.” Prison Reform Trust branded the scheme a waste of money and said chemical castration is no replacement for proper rehabilitation
Examples: Russia Previous laws on sex crimes against juveniles were more lenient, with the toughest sentence being an 8-15-year prison term.And, as actual legal practice shows, many pedophiles received terms of 3-4 years through plea-bargaining. From now on people found guilty of sex crimes against children under the age of 14 will face chemical castration, while repeat offenders face a life sentence. Criminal must be at least 18 yrs old. “At the same time, some of the convicts may ask for voluntary chemical castration, even if the victim was over 14. This may help them get parole if they are already serving a sentence, or a more lenient sentence if they are still being tried. However, in the latter case the final decision will be up to the court.The law also banned suspended and deferred sentences for those found guilty of sex crimes against a child under the age of 14. And from now on they can ask for parole only after serving at least 80 per cent of their sentence.”
Examples California 15 repeat offenders who are opting for chemical castration instead of indefinite incarceration. Mandate chemical castration to repeat offenders before they can be released. South Korea http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGk8r2bmIWE
In conclusion… Our group believes that with: Careful consideration for each case A law arranged as that of California Specific implementation of the two-strikes rule, especially That the federal implementation of the chemical castration of sex offenders would be beneficial to society. An implementation on this scale could drastically reduce the number of re-offenses, the job that incarceration alone is not doing.