Preview • Australia- Australia is a vast land with diverse physical characteristics and a relatively small population. • People and Culture-Most Australians live in cities located along the Eastern and Southeastern coasts. In fact, 90 percent of Australia’s population live within 100 miles of the ocean. • Government and Economy- With its abundant physical resources, Australia has enjoyed a high standard of living since the nineteenth century.
Reach Into Your Background • Think about what you know about American history. When settlers moved West in the United States, what happened to Native American lands and way of life? • European settlers in Australia moved into Aboriginal lands in the 1800s. Make a list of what you think happened to the Aborigines. (5 minutes)
Partner Activity • Work with a neighbor and compare your list with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
Key Ideas- Australia • Australia is country and a continent with a relatively small population. • The Aborigines were the first humans to live in the Australian Outback. They learned over time how fragile their environment was and felt a sacred obligation to protect it. • The Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef system in the world and a popular tourist destination.
Tourism Australia Video- Tourism Australia
Key Term Australia – A country and continent in the Southern Hemisphere.
Nature • Australia's ecosystem is an unusual one because of its remote location. As a result, there are many animal species that occur here and nowhere else in the world. • Australia has 516 national parks to protect its unique plants and animals.
Unique Animals of Australia Platypus Kangaroo Dingo Koala
Key Term Marsupial – An animal, such as the kangaroo or the koala, that carries its young in a body pouch.
Nature • Australians often refer to the harsh wilderness region of the central western parts of Australia as the Outback. • The Aborigines were the first humans to live in the Australian Outback. They learned over time how fragile their environment was and felt a sacred obligation to protect it.
Key Term Outback – The remote rural part of Australia. The Outback is sparsely populated and dry.
Eucalyptus • Australia's eucalyptus tree has become a familiar sight in many nations around the world. • Also known as the Fever Tree, eucalyptus has been used to help fight malaria since the mid-1800s.
Eucalyptus • Oil from the eucalyptus tree leaves combats malarial fever and many other illnesses. • However, the tree’s most powerful antimalarial tool is the root system, which rapidly drains the marshy land where malaria-carrying mosquitoes breed.
The Great Barrier Reef • The Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef system in the world. • It is found in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Australia. • It is a popular tourist destination with around two million visitors every year.
The Great Barrier Reef • The Great Barrier Reef is home to a wide range of life. Over 1,500 different species of fish live in the Great Barrier Reef. • The Great Barrier Reef is around 1,616 miles in length. • Astronauts can see the Great Barrier Reef from space.
The Great Barrier Reef • The Great Barrier Reef is a natural barrier made of the bodies of living and dead coral. • If damaged, a coral reef takes many years to regenerate. • There are several human-made threats to coral reefs, such as pollution, fishing, and the carelessness of people.
Human-Environment Interaction • Question- What can humans do to better protect and preserve coral reefs?
Human-Environment Interaction • Answer- We can take steps to decrease pollution levels and exercising care when visiting the reef.
Exploring Oceans Video- The Great Barrier Reef
Eyewitness To History Reading Activity- Eyewitness To History 23
Question- Most Australians live along the coast. Why do you think the Australian interior is so thinly settled?
Australia • Australia is both a continent and a country and the smallest, flattest, and except for Antarctica the driest continent. • Only about 19 million people live in Australia. That’s only one million more people than the entire population of New York.
Key Ideas- People and Culture • Australia’s capital, Canberra, is the country’s only major planned city. • Most people who live in Australia live in cities and towns. • Ninety percent of Australia’s population live within one hundred miles of the ocean. • Aborigines were nomadic hunter and gatherers who shared a deep respect for nature and the land.
Waltzing Matilda Questions- What do you think this song is about?
Waltzing Matilda Answer- In Australia slang, a matilda is a bedroll, often the only possession of farmhands who wander the outback in search of work. The song glorifies their way of life.
Key Term Canberra– The capital city of Australia.
Major Cities • Most people who live in Australia live in cities and towns. • The three largest Australian cities—Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane—are located on the eastern and southeastern coasts. • Together their areas account for nearly half of the country's total population.
Major Cities • Most Australian cities and farms are located in the southwest and southeast, where the climate is more comfortable. There are dense rain forests in the northeast. • The Australian Outback contains the country's largest deserts.
Pattern of Settlement • Australia’s hot, dry climate and forbidding interior have greatly affected the country’s settlement and land use. • Most Australians live in cities located along the eastern and southeastern coasts. • 90 percent of Australia’s population live within 100 miles of the ocean.
Pattern of Settlement • Most Australians live in cities along the eastern and southeastern coasts since they are well-watered. • Sheep and cattle graze in dry country, but care must be taken with the soil. Overgrazing of cattle can lead to desertification.
Pattern of Settlement • Growth in the Australian cattle industry reflect changes in both the supply and demand for beef. • New breeds of cattle that thrive better in hot, dry weather have increased beef yields, making Australia one of the world’s leading producers of cattle.
A History of Migration • Scientists think that the first Australians, known as Aborigines came to Australia about 50 thousand years ago. • These people were nomadic hunter and gatherers. They lived in small groups, spoke many languages, and shared a deep respect for nature and the land.
Key Term Aborigines– An original inhabitant of Australia.
Rock Art Video- Rock Art
A History of Migration • Aborigines were isolated from the rest of the world for many years because of this they developed their own unique culture. • Australia’s isolation ended in 1770, however, when Captain James Cook landed on the east coast of Australia and claimed it for Great Britain.
European Settlement • The European settlement of Australia began 18 years after Cook arrived. • Britain quickly saw Australia as a solution to its overcrowded prisons. In 1787 the first group of prisoners bordered ships for the long journey to the southern continent.
European Settlement • After their sentences ended, many prisoners stayed in Australia. • Other settlers from Britain joined them looking for land on which to raise sheep and grow wheat. • Meanwhile, the Aborigines suffered terrible losses, killed by European diseases or weapons.
People and Culture • In 1851, gold was discovered in Australia. A rush to find riches brought thousands of new immigrants, and by 1859, six separate colonies existed. • In 1901, these colonies joined to form a British commonwealth.
People and Culture • Australia is one of the world's most ethnically diverse nations. • Nearly a quarter of the people who live in Australia were born in other countries.
People and Culture • Australia's warm, sunny climate and abundance of open spaces gives the population a love of the outdoors. • The people of Australia are passionate about sports, including swimming, surfing, sailing, tennis, soccer, cricket, and rugby.
Key Ideas- Government and Economy • Today, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products. • Australia has large reserves of natural gas and coal. • Australia has made large investments in its social infrastructure, including education, health, and transport.
Government • The government of Australia, like Australian culture in general, is dominated by models it inherited from the British. Australia has a parliament led by a prime minister and a cabinet. • Unlike Great Britain, however, Australia has a written constitution that divides power between the federal government and the states.
Government • As a commonwealth of the United Kingdom, Australia's head of state is the British monarch. • Many Australians think the country should end its ties to Britain and become a republic. • In a vote in 1999, Australians decided against separating from the UK, but the vote was close, and the debate continues.
Economy • Today, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, like wool, wheat, beef, fruit, and wine. • The country is also rich in minerals and metals and is the world's fourth largest producer of gold. Australia also has large reserves of natural gas and coal.
Tourism • Tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in Australia. • Spectacular natural environment • Multicultural communities • Friendly people • Favorable weather
The Global Economy • As a result of the shift in focus of global trade to the Pacific Rim nations, Australia is now situated at the “top of the world”. • A region that was once described as being situated “down under”, is now a major exporter of wheat, beef, sugar and the world's fourth largest producer of gold.
Gorgon Project Video- Gorgon Project Overview
Questions • How did European migration affect the lives of the Aborigines? • Why do the majority of Australia’s major cities lie along the coast? • Do you consider it fortunate or unfortunate that much of Australia remains unsettled? Explain your answer.