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Cognition

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  1. I shall always remember my cool psychology teacher at OHS Cognition Memory: The storage and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced

  2. Cognition As a retired officer in the United States Army, I am, and always have been, proud of our nation and the symbol of our nation, our flag. As such, I have always taken pride in reciting the Pledge of Allegiance. However, listen now as I recite it in an unusual way—a way I first learned way back in September, 1966.

  3. Cognition Why am I able to remember something I learned way back in 1966, and only recall once each year? Working as individuals, think back: what is your earliest memory? Next, think back and list 3 famous “firsts” or significant events in your early lives. For example, for me: the JFK assassination on Nov. 22, 1963; my first 880 win in track (April, 1967); my in-car driving test on Jan. 24, 1967; and getting my Univ. of San Francisco acceptance letter in April, 1969.

  4. Chapter Project: Memory Iiiiiiiit’s time for YOUR chapter project!!!! I’d like to use him as a tackling dummy at practice. Old, bald, jerk!! Review one of the topics on Simoncini’s Website and write a 1-2 page paper about it

  5. Taking In Information Which one of you can describe for me the information processing model. Human memory takes essentially meaningless sensory information (my voice) and changes it into meaningful patterns that you can store and use later. It is a cognitive understanding of memory.

  6. Taking In Information Information is captured through a person’s senses. All transformed to impulses so the nervous system can process it. This action is called: encoding.

  7. Taking In Information As a typical bonehead, this part is difficult for me. Simoncini is clearly my mental superior-I’m sure he encodes much better than me. Encoding One of 3 basic tasks of memory Modifies information to fit our memory systems Select some stimulus Identify distinctive features of input Mentally label an experience to make it meaningful Encoding can be automatic Memories for concepts: elaboration required— a deliberate encoding effort

  8. Taking In Information Hey! For smart people like us, encoding, storing and retrieving memories is no problemo. Encoding Storage—retention of encoded material Retrieval Alyssa is SO HOT!

  9. Taking In Information Some children,few adults, have eidetic, or photographic, imagery. After looking at Michelangelo’s Creation for 30 seconds, I remembered every detail. And they are. . . Frankie’s kinda cute. This is SO Boring!

  10. Taking In Information Storage of inputs Memory Hey! My memory is like a bank vault—it holds everything! Sensory memory Working memory (Short term) Long Term memory

  11. Taking In Information Memory Storage of inputs Sensory memory holds information for only a second or so

  12. Taking In Information The George Sperling Experiment H T X W R V A M J B N P

  13. Taking In Information The George Sperling Experiment H T X W R V A M J B N P Top row: chime Middle: laser Bottom: drum

  14. Taking In Information The George Sperling Experiment H T X W R V A M J B N P Top row: chime Middle: laser Bottom: drum

  15. Taking In Information The George Sperling Experiment Partial report condition Actual storage capacity of sensory memory can be 12 or more items—even though all but 3 or 4 items usually disappear from sensory memory before they enter consciousness.

  16. Taking In Information Senses of sight and hearing Hold inputs for fractions of seconds before they disappear No narrowing or analysis occurs

  17. Taking In Information The five primary types of sensory memory: Iconic memory Echoic memory Tactile sensory memory Olfactory sensory memory Gustatory sensory memory

  18. Taking In Information There is a multitude of inputs entering our brains at any one time—how do we discriminate into a manageable number? No wonder my head always hurts!

  19. Taking In Information I don’t want my Homie’s head to hurt so much. How are sensory inputs narrowed to a manageable number. Why, that’s easy, Marge. Two ways: selective attention and feature extraction.

  20. Taking In Information Yeah! Your ability to choose among the various available inputs is called selective attention.

  21. Taking In Information According to Donald Broadbent, we attend to only one of the many channels of information reaching us at any time. Our minds filter out the other inputs That’s why Bart tuned out Ms. Krabapple’s teaching and Otto’s clowning around while he thought about Ms. Speers.

  22. Taking In Information Yeah, kid. But don’t forget: Anne Treisman later proposedattenuation theorysaying that Broadbent’s filter suppressed but did not eliminate other channels—so other inputs are not completely blocked out. A lot of it has to do with how interested you are in something.

  23. Taking In Information All right, then, so what is feature extraction? Mr. Burns, feature extraction involves locating the outstanding characteristics of incoming information.

  24. Taking In Information Duh, is that like remembering a person’s name by remembering certain things about them—like their hair color, eyes or height . . . or that they belch a lot?

  25. Taking In Information Exactly, Barney. For example, I remember Mr. Simoncini by his great physique.

  26. Taking In Information That’s great, Lisa. Now, we’ll have experiments about selective attention and feature extraction.

  27. Taking In Information Working memory keeps a thought as long as you repeat it—about 20 seconds Long-term memory Man, that date with the Sonora cheerleader back in 1965 was awful!

  28. Taking In Information By the time information gets to the short term memory (STM) it has been analyzed, identified, and simplified for convenient storage during a longer time period.

  29. Taking In Information Wow! This is mind boggling: I can only hold 7 unrelated items at a time. Right now, though, I can only hold two. STM is limited not only in its duration, but in its capacity as well. Or. . .

  30. Oh, this is so hard. Do we have math homework? Is the government test tomorrow? What time is Meagan’s party? Are we TPing Simoncini’s house Friday or Saturday? Did Mom say I had to make dinner tonight? Aaaarrrgh!! Being blonde is SO HARD!!! Memory and Thought STM: How? For most, any more than 7 items can’t be stored. For some, that number is less.

  31. Taking In Information Let’s do an experiment on short-term memory! Take out some scratch paper. I’ll read 8 groups of number lists. After each one, I’ll say “Go” and you will write the numbers in the correct sequence. 2 8 3 1 4 9 7 2 1 5 7 4 1 3 9 1 9 5 6 3 4 7 2 5 1 8 3 9 2 6 3 6 2 5 1 9 7 4 8 6 1 5 4 9 8 3 2 8 7 8 9 3 1 6 4 2 7 5 1 3

  32. Taking In Information Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Model of Working Memory (Baddeley’s update—2001)

  33. Memory and Thought One good STM technique is called chunking OK, that number was 847-3007. Let’s see, 847, OK, yeah; and then 30 and then 07. Yeah! 847-30, 07; 847-3007. Got it! Peace out! Chunk items together as fast as they come in to make them easier to remember.

  34. Memory and Thought Hey, you psych students. Let’s do an experiment about chunking! No, Blondie. I said chunking! Not chunks! Gee! Oh Professor, please don’t make me blow chunks.

  35. Memory and Thought You have 20 seconds to memorize this list: Who wants to try? SATCIAVHSMTVNATOVOLOHS

  36. Memory and Thought Oh, professor, you’re so mean. That was too hard—especially for a blonde like ME!

  37. Memory and Thought Don’t feel bad, Kim. That was hard for normal people, so it must be impossible for a blonde. Now let’s try using chunking! You have another 20 seconds. Now who wants to try? SAT CIA VHS MTV NATO VOL OHS

  38. Memory and Thought Oh, me, me, me, me!!!

  39. Memory and Thought How does chunking help expand short-term memory? Can any of you share other STM devices that you have used?

  40. Taking In Information OK, her phone number is 555-1212; that’s 555, 12, 12. Rehearsal Must repeat things to yourself, in your mind or out loud. That process is called: maintenance rehearsal Without rehearsal, STM lasts <20 sec.

  41. Taking In Information Elaborative Rehearsal OK. I’ve devised a phone number so simple that even you two girls can remember it: 1-800-H-O-T-J-A-K-E. Get it? Hot Jake! Poor guy! How pathetic! This is sad! Information is actively connected to knowledge already stored

  42. Taking In Information Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Model of Working Memory (Baddeley’s update—2001) Acoustic encoding

  43. Memory and Thought Information worth holding on to must be rehearsed—with the intent to learn—for it to be transferred into the long-term memory.Rehearsal without intent to learn yields no transfer. Rehearse I wanna LTM

  44. Memory and Thought Long-term memory (LTM) Where we store information for future use Not like a filing cabinet Reconstruct what you must recall when you need it. Involves all previously- discussed processes

  45. Wow! It’s cool sitting next to a REAL man, who does his OWN homework. I’m so nervous, I can’t pay attention to the speaker. Keep your cool, dude! Sara may be a whiner, but she is HOT! And I’m a huge football star—I intercepted a pass and scored against Sierra!. Memory and Thought Long-term memory (LTM)

  46. Memory and Thought Long-term memory (LTM) Feature extraction turns sounds into recognizable words. Words form in STM & form meaningful phrases & sentences You will store meanings of lines & actions in LTM Selective attention screens out other sounds

  47. Memory and Thought Here’s an example of how things get into our LTM. I’ve memorized Rodney Dangerfield’s monologue from ball dinner scene the 1980 movie Caddyshack. Listen. Now, let’s see how close your teacher came to what I really said.

  48. Memory and Thought Some Models of Memory Endel Tulving (1972) Procedural (implicit) memory Does not require conscious recollection to have past learning or experiences impact our performance Tying a tie or a shoe lace

  49. Memory and Thought Some Models of Memory Endel Tulving (1972) Semantic memory = our knowledge of language: its words, rules & and meanings. Episodic memory = memory of our own lives Declarative (explicit) memory episodic + semantic memories

  50. Memory and Thought The Limbic System Hippocampus Amygdala