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NEESR-SG: Controlled Rocking of Steel-Framed Buildings with Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses. Gregory G. Deierlein, Sarah Billington, Helmut Krawinkler, Xiang Ma Stanford University Jerome F. Hajjar, Matthew Eatherton University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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neesr sg controlled rocking of steel framed buildings with replaceable energy dissipating fuses

NEESR-SG: Controlled Rocking of Steel-Framed Buildings with Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Gregory G. Deierlein, Sarah Billington,

Helmut Krawinkler, Xiang Ma Stanford University

Jerome F. Hajjar, Matthew Eatherton University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Mitsumasa Midorikawa, Hokkaido University

Toru Takeuchi, Tokyo Institute of Technology

T. Hikino, Hyogo Earthquake Engineering Research Center

David Mar, Tipping & Mar Associates andGreg Luth, GPLA

In-Kind Funding: Tefft Bridge and Iron of Tefft, IN, MC Detailers of Merrillville, IN, Munster Steel Co. Inc. of Munster, IN, Infra-Metals of Marseilles, IN, and Textron/Flexalloy Inc. Fastener Systems Division of Indianapolis, IN.

slide2

Key Short Comings of Modern Seismic Design

Throw-away technology:

Structure and Architecture absorbs energy through damage

Large Inter-story Drifts:

Result in architectural & structural damage

High Accelerations:

Result in content damage

& loss of function

Deformed Section – Eccentric Braced Frame

new system
New System

Develop a new structural building system that employs self-centering rocking action and replaceable* fuses to provide safe and cost effective earthquake resistance.

Shear Fuse

Post-tensioning

*Key Concept – design for repair

controlled rocking system
Controlled Rocking System

Component 3 – Replaceable energy dissipating fuses take majority of damage

Component 2 – Post-tensioning strands bring frame back down during rocking

Component 1 – Stiff braced frame, designed to remain essentially elastic - not tied down to the foundation.

Bumper or Trough

slide5

Pretension/Brace System

Fuse System

c

b

c

d

e

b

Base Shear

a,f

Base Shear

Fuse Strength

Eff. Fuse

Stiffness

a

d

PT Strength

g

Drift

Frame Stiffness

g

f

e

Drift

b

c

Origin-a – frame strain + small distortions in fuse

a – frame lift off, elongation of PT

b – fuse yield (+)

c – load reversal (PT yields if continued)

d – zero force in fuse

e – fuse yield (-)

f – frame contact

f-g – frame relaxation

g – strain energy left in frame and fuse, small residual displacement

Base Shear

2x Fuse

Strength

d

a

PT

Strength

e

f

PT – Fuse Strength

g

Drift

Combined System

phase i shear fuse testing
Attributes of Fuse

high initial stiffness

large strain capacity

energy dissipation

Candidate Fuse Designs

ductile fiber cementitious composites

steel panels with slits

low-yield steel

mixed sandwich panels

damping devices

Phase I: Shear Fuse Testing

Panel Size: 400 x 900 mm

slide8

Butterfly link: b/a

Rectangular link: b/t and L/t

Welded end

Buckling-restrained

Fuse Configurations

thickness t

h

L

a

b

B

slide9

Testing Results: Butterfly Links

B56-09

B36-10

B37-06

B14-02

slide10

Butterfly Links: Load-Deformation

B36-10

B56-09

B37-06

B14-02

test setup at must sim facility

Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES)

Test Setup at MUST-SIM Facility

Loading and Boundary Condition Box (LBCB)

Loading Beam Applies Loads to the Two Frames

Load Cell Pins Provide Load Data and Feedback for Control

Reaction Wall

Anchorage Plate for the Post-Tensioning

Bumpers Restrain Horizontal Movement (Not Shown Here)

slide20

Test Frame

Test-bed Unit

controlled rocking system test at e defense 2009
Controlled Rocking System Test at E-Defense (2009)
  • Large (2/3 scale) frame assembly
  • Validation of dynamic response and simulation
  • Proof-of-Concept
    • construction details
    • re-centering behavior
    • fuse replacement
  • Collaboration & Payload Projects
conclusions
Conclusions
  • The controlled rocking system exhibits excellent self-centering and energy dissipating response. All indicators show that the system is constructable and viable for practice.
  • The controlled rocking system will reduce life cycle costs by reducing structural repair costs after an earthquake.
  • Butterfly steel plate shear fuses, tested at Stanford University, were able to sustain cyclic deformations as large as 25% shear strain or more and still absorb seismic energy.
  • Half scale tests at University of Illinois are in progress. Tests A1, A2, and A3 are complete. More tests to come.
  • Two-thirds scale shake table tests on a planar frame at E-Defense next summer will further validate system performance.
  • Design recommendations will be develoeped to allow implementation in practice.
video of specimen a1
Video of Specimen A1

Six ¼” fuses buckled late in the loading history; Peak drift: 3%; Peak shear strain: 11%

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