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Intermolecular Forces. R W Grime Ripon Grammar School. 1 – Van der Waals’ Forces. The electrons in an atoms are moving around – at any moment in time they are unlikely to be evenly spread. This gives the atom or molecule a temporary dipole.

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Intermolecular Forces

R W Grime Ripon Grammar School

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1 – Van der Waals’ Forces

The electrons in an atoms are moving around – at any moment in time they are unlikely to be evenly spread.

This gives the atom or molecule a temporary dipole.

This dipole moment will induce a temporary dipole in a neighboring atom by attracting/repelling its electron charge cloud.

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2 – Dipole-dipole forces

Polar molecules (molecules with permanent dipoles) will attract other molecules with permanent dipoles.

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3 – H-bonds

These are a special case of dipole-dipole forces.

They occur when H is bonded to N, O or F (which are very electronegative).

As H only has the two electrons in the covalent bond, if they are pulled away from the H atom, the H nucleus is exposed.

The “H-bond” is the attraction between a lone pair on the N, O or F to the + H on a neighbouring molecule.

aqa way of drawing h bonds
AQA way of drawing H bonds

from lone pair on N, O, F to + on H, e.g. NH3

aqa way of drawing h bonds1
AQA way of drawing H bonds

from lone pair on N, O, F to + on H, e.g. H2O

aqa way of drawing h bonds2
AQA way of drawing H bonds

from lone pair on N, O, F to + on H, e.g. HF

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Also in:

alcohols (O-H bonds)

carboxylic acids (O-H bonds)

amines (N-H bonds)

proteins (N-H bonds)