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A LOW-COST, EXPANDABLE, OPEN-ARCHITECTURE GRINDING MACHINE CONTROL SYSTEM. John Moruzzi AMTReL. Director of Studies: Dr Michael Morgan. AMTReL Jones & Shipman 1300X. Universal grinding machine External and Internal wheelheads SAMM control (Servo Assisted Manual Machine)

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a low cost expandable open architecture grinding machine control system

A LOW-COST, EXPANDABLE, OPEN-ARCHITECTURE GRINDING MACHINE CONTROL SYSTEM

John Moruzzi

AMTReL

Director of Studies: Dr Michael Morgan

A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

amtrel jones shipman 1300x
AMTReLJones & Shipman 1300X
  • Universal grinding machine
  • External and Internal wheelheads
  • SAMM control (Servo Assisted Manual Machine)
  • Prototype machine based on Format 15 model
  • Built circa 1994, modified 2001
  • Closed control system – Industrial PC / MS-DOS

Used for previous AMTReL projects/PhD’s

Adaptive control (Y Chen)

Open CNC Interface (C Statham)

High speed Internal grinding

Industry co-operations (Timken, Lucas, …)

Fluid delivery methods, nozzle design

AE monitoring

Dressing tool control (fluid coupling)

A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

aims of the project
Aims of the project
  • Replace old ‘closed’ CNC control
  • New simplified operator panel
  • Touch screen operation
  • Implement existing cycles for External grinding
  • Enhance cycle programming and machine setup
  • Interface and integrate external process control equipment
  • Demonstrate optimised cycle
  • Modern software design and implementation
  • Expandable for intelligent and adaptive grinding features

A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

initial objectives
Initial Objectives

Machine

Familiarity with machine & electrics

Re-commission hardware

Move axes

Replace workhead drive

Modifications to wiring

Disable hardware limits

Remove original control panel

Control system

Initial “desktop” PC control :

ISA bus motion control card

No Digital I/O card

Standard mouse / keyboard / monitor

Initial Software

Windows 2000 (XP), Visual Basic

Programming familiarity

Axis configuration (Utility S/W)

Axis movements (Utility S/W, libraries)

Simple grinding cycles

Simple cycle parameters

No I/O features

A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

phase 2 objectives
Phase 2 Objectives

Machine

Modifications to hardware

Optimise axes (drives)

Replace original digital I/O wiring

Activation of

workhead

external wheel

coolant pump

Modifications to wiring

Enable hardware limits

Interface to original control panel

Interface external control devices (Power, AE)

Implement new control panel

Control system

New “industrial” PC control :

Rack mount case with Mini-ITX PC board

PCI bus motion control card

Digital I/O from motion card

Standard mouse / keyboard / monitor

LCD / Touchscreen monitor

Developed software

Windows XP, Visual Basic / .NET

Program design & implementation

Parameter definition & management

Enhanced axis moves (MPG)

Standard grinding cycles

Enhanced cycle programming

Initial IO features

RS232 connectivity

A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

architecture of a cnc system
Architecture of a CNC system

Main Control

ExecutorScheduling, program execution, monitoring

IO routines HMI, programming, Digital, Bus

Safety Machine logic

Cycle management Sequencing, monitoring

Motion ControlAxis movements, motors

Process optimisation

In-process Gauging Diameter, Shoulder

Touch Detection AE, Power

Wheel balancing Auto / Manual

Probing

Adaptive / Intelligent Control

Adaptive strategy Parameter modification

Selection strategy Rule / Case based

Process models & rules Kinematic, Compliance

Database Learning strategy, data

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

new components
New Components
  • Workhead servo drive
  • Industrial PC
  • Motion control card
  • Touchscreen monitor
  • Console switches / lamps
  • Cabling / connectors

A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

grinding wheel speed and control
Grinding Wheel speed and Control

Wheelspeed

Rotational speed ns(RPM) Surface speed vs (m/sec)

Fixed on 1300X machine , can be changed with gearing / pulleys (3 ratios)

Control buttons: SB4 Start Wheel Green

SB3 Stop Wheel Red

Control relays: KA5 Wheelhead Stop Override

KA12 Enable Internal Wheelhead

KA13 Enable External Wheelhead

A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

workhead speed and control
Workhead speed and control

Workspeed

Rotational speed nw (RPM) Surface speed vw (m/sec)

Variable on most grinding machines Controlled by operator / program

Open-loop motor drive control 3rd axis on motion card

Calibration Reference Voltage => speed

  • Control buttons: W+ W- Speed Down / Up

SB8 Start Workhead Green

SB7 Stop Workhead Red

Control relays: KA4 Workhead Stop Override

  • KA6 Workhead Start Override
  • KA7 Workhead Stop Relay

A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

deva 004 axis servo setup
Deva 004 : Axis servo setup

Z axis parameters

PITCH = -10.0000 MAXVOLT = 3000 (2150)

COUNT = 10000.0000 MAXSPEED = 60

MAXACCEL = 60

GAIN KV = 15

SPEED = 25

Motion card driver :

Set up and adjust axis configuration parameters in, to match to real-world values and give satisfactory response characteristics.

Optimization / minimization of lag and overshoot

Axor MTS 400

VEL Fine speed adjustment

  • Offset Zero volt drift compensation

kV Dynamic response (gain)

Der Derivative gain

Also :

Adjust servo drive amplifier settings, to give satisfactory response characteristics.

Tuning of amplifier trim-pots

Optimization / minimization of drift and overshoot

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

workhead drive setup 1
Workhead drive setup #1

Original transformer (single phase)

Original drive unit (with choke)

  • Non-standard drive and transformer (undocumented, unsupported)
  • Non-functioning

A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

workhead drive setup 2
Workhead drive setup #2

New transformer

(3 phase 2kW)

New servo drive unit

wheel power monitor

A

  • Axor drive Masterspeed MTS-200-14/28 and transformer TT2000/200-300
  • Matched to wheelhead motor SEM MT40-P4
  • Equivalent to Control Techniques Maxi-Maestro DCD 200 25/50

A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

motion control interfacing
Motion Control Interfacing

Problem : to integrate a new Motion card with the existing machine wiring.

Original ISA bus Motion card – 4 axes on 2 boards:

Conn 1 15W D Axis 0 encoder inputs

Conn 2 15W D Axis 1 encoder inputs

Conn 3 9W D Axis 0 , 1 servo outputs

Conn 4 15W D Axis 3 encoder inputs

Conn 5 15W D Axis 4 encoder inputs

Conn 6 9W D Axis 2 , 3 servo outputs

New PCI bus Motion card – 4 axes on 1 board + flyer cables:

Conn 1 15W D Axis 0 encoder inputs / limit signals

Conn 2 15W D Axis 1 encoder inputs / limit signals

Conn 3 15W D Axis 2 encoder inputs / limit signals

Conn 4 15W D Axis 3 encoder inputs / limit signals

IO2 25W D Axis 0, 1, 2 , 3 servo outputs

A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

digital i o interfacing
Digital I/O Interfacing

Problem: To integrate a new Digital IO card with the existing machine.

Original ISA bus I/O card – 48 opto-isolated signals on 50W D connector:

Conn 1 50W D 24 inputs, 24 Outputs, 2 x common

New PCI bus Motion card – 48 opto-isolated signals on 2 flyer cables:

IO1 25W D 12 inputs, 9 Outputs, 2 x common, 1 x WDog

IO2 25W D 4 inputs, 3 Outputs, 2 x common

Machine requirements: 16 Inputs, 7 Outputs, 1 x WDog

Connection: To terminal rails in electrical cabinet

To auxiliary control equipment

A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

signal interface unit
Signal Interface Unit

To convert one set of signal configurations to be compatible with the machine wiring

Control PC

Interface

Machine

Encoder 0

Encoder 0

Encoder 1

Encoder 1

Encoder 2

Encoder 2

Encoder 3

Encoder 3

Servo 0 , 1

Servo 0, 1, 2, 3

Servo 2 , 3

IO1 Inputs, Outputs

Inputs 0..15

IO2 Inputs, Outputs

Outputs 0..11

Additional

Additional

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

signal interface unit cont
Signal Interface Unit cont...

Implemented as 2U high 19” rack enclosure

Rack assembly with connecting cables

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

electrical cabinet i o
Electrical cabinet :- I/O

I/O terminals

Relay board

Fuses

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

control pc hardware
Control PC hardware

IEI Kino 945 GSE

Further equipment

2U 19” rack PC case with PSU

Operating system Windows XP

8.4” LCD Touchscreen (VGA, RS232)

Deva 004 Motion card (4 axis + I/O)

2U 19” rack for signal interfacing

Blank 19” rack panels

  • Industrial Mini ITX board with Intel Atom 1.6GHz CPU (Fanless)
  • 1 x PCI expansion slot
  • 1 x 200pin DDR2 SODIMM slot
  • 2 x SATA connectors, 1 x IDE
  • 2 x RS232 ports on rear I/O
  • 1 x RS232 port (internal)
  • 1 x RS232/422/485 port (internal)
  • 8-bit digital I/O

Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

control pc hardware cont
Control PC hardware cont...

Front of 19” control console:

VM20 unit 3U (balance / touch)

Blank panel 1U

PC rack unit 2U

Signal Interface unit 2U

Inside of control console:

Axis cabling

I/O cabling

Cross connections

An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems

software panel main screen
Software panel – main screen

Main user interface

Cycle start / stop and status

Machine functions control

Grinding mode and program control

X axis status and Jog

Z axis status and Jog

Manual axis control

Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

software panel program screen
Software panel – program screen

Cycle programming - Traverse

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

common grinding cycles

Common grinding cycles

Dressing Single point “diamond” dressing:

Wheel rotating (surface speed vc )

Wheel traverses past diamond tip (crossfeed velocity vf)

Wheel infeeds an increment (infeed amount ad)

Repeat until wheel surface fully dressed

Plunge grindingWorkpiece / table positioned relative to wheel

Wheel and workpiece rotating (vc and vw)

Wheel infeed at Rapid speed to start position (dia)

Wheel infeed at Coarse feed to Fine Feed start position (dia)

Wheel infeed at Fine feed to Final Size position (dia)

Sparkout or Dwell with no infeed

Traverse grinding Workpiece / table set to oscillate across wheel

Wheel and workpiece rotating (vc and vw)

Wheel infeed at Rapid speed to start position (dia)

Wheel infeed by Coarse increments to Fine Feed start position (dia)

Wheel infeed at Fine feed to Final Size position (dia)

Sparkout passes of wheel with no infeed

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

automatic plunge cycle
Automatic Plunge Cycle

Cycle State Machine

Motion parameters

dblXMovespeed As Double

dblXRapid As Double

dblXCoarseFeedAs Double

dblXFineFeed As Double

dblXInfeed As Double

dblXInfeedRate As Double

intXDwell as Integer

dblXStartPosition As Double

dblXFinePosition As Double

dblXSizePosition As Double

dblZReversePositionL As Double

dblZReversePositionR As Double

dblZStartPosition As Double

intFROSetting As Integer

blnFeedHold As Boolean

Cycle parameters

PlungeCoarseInfeed As Double

PlungeFineInfeed As Double

PlungeFineDia As Double

PlungeStartDia As Double

PlungeSizeDia As Double

PlungeDwell As Double

Auxiliary variables

WheelSpeed As Double

WorkSpeed As Double

WheelheadOn As Boolean

WorkheadOn As Boolean

CoolantOn As Boolean

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

interfacing of peripherals 1
Interfacing of Peripherals 1

Connect to 1300X Operator Panel

via RS232:

Read Data String:

FRO value, button values, checksum

Write Data String:

Axis position displays, Workspeed display, LED values, checksum

RS232:

Com 1,

9600 Baud,

No Parity

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

interfacing of peripherals 2
Interfacing of Peripherals 2

Connect to Balance Systems VM9 TD

via RS232:

Read Data String:

Signal values, Parameter values, checksum

Write Data String:

Operating commands, Parameter settings, checksum

RS232:

Com 2,

38400 Baud,

No Parity

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

object oriented design
Object Oriented Design
  • OOD (Object Oriented Design) models software as people would describe the objects in the world.
    • OOD takes advantage of class relationships where objects of a certain class (e.g. a class of Vehicle) have the same characteristics. (e.g. a Car, a Truck, a Bus).
    • OOD also takes advantage of inheritance relationships where a new class of objects is derived by absorbing characteristics of an existing class of objects and adding unique characteristics of its own.
      • An object of class Convertible has the characteristics of class Car, but additionally, has a convertible roof.

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

introducing oo cont
Introducing OO . . . cont
  • An Object has attributes . . .
    • i.e. size, shape, colour & weight.
  • . . . and exhibits behaviours.
    • i.e. a ball rolls, bounces, inflates & deflates.
  • A Class has Properties . . .
    • that describe its state and features
  • . . . and Methods
    • that allow it to perform and experience actions

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

oo class example
OO Class example

A fundamental object could be of type Parameter,

with various Attributes and Operations (i.e. Properties and Methods)

Class: Parameter Derived classes:CycleParameter

AxisParameter

VM9 Parameter

….

Properties: Data Type Methods: ReadValue

Decimal places WriteValue

Group FormatValue

LevelResetValue

Value GetAddress

Min Value ….

Max Value

….

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

some system parameters
Some System Parameters

Axis Configuration

XAxisChannel As AxisParameter

XAxisPitch As AxisParameter

XAxisCount As AxisParameter

XAxisKV As AxisParameter

XAxisMaxSpeed As AxisParameter

XAxisMaxVolt As AxisParameter

RS232 Configuration

Port As RS232Parameter

Baudrate As RS232Parameter

ParityChecking As RS232Parameter

Handshaking As RS232Parameter

InBufferSize As RS232Parameter

OutBufferSize As RS232Parameter

Traverse Cycle

XCoarseInc As CycleParameter

XFineInc As CycleParameter

TraverseZFeed As CycleParameter

TraverseStartDia As CycleParameter

TraverseFineDia As CycleParameter

TraverseSizeDia As CycleParameter

Z0Dwell As CycleParameter

ZRevDwell As CycleParameter

TraversePasses As CycleParameter

VM20 Balancer Function

MinimumTolerance As BalanceParameter

MaximumTolerance As BalanceParameter

MaximumUnbalance As BalanceParameter

NominalSpeed As BalanceParameter

UnbalanceMeasuringUnit As BalanceParameter

BalancingCycleTimeout As BalanceParameter

CollectorType As BalanceParameter

BalancingHeadType As BalanceParameter

OptionRPMOutput As BalanceParameter

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

uml class diagram
UML Class Diagram
  • Universal Modelling Language
  • The UML Class diagram allows us to model the classes in the system and their relationships.
  • Class diagrams :
  • model a class as a rectangle.
  • The top zone displays the class name.
  • The middle zone contains the class attributes.
  • The bottom zone contains the class operations.

. . . ?

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

progress
Progress

So far.....

Reactivation of machine tool

Electrical modifications, new workhead drive

Initial software with old hardware

Development software with new hardware

Axis configuration and movement

Familiarity with motion control package

Implementation of simple cycles

Design and build of control unit, IO conversion

Developed basic interface design

Communication with external equipment

Next steps....

Formal definition of software structure

Integration of Touchscreen

Connection with VM20 unit (RS232/Profibus)

Axis movement via MPGs: Improved driver

Issues....

Machine removed for workshop rebuild since

August 2011

New workshop with machines available

duringApril 2012 ?????

VM9 Touch Detector unit with Hydrophone ?

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

and finally
And finally...

Any Questions ???

Thank you for your attention.....

A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System