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Hydrilla verticillata ( L.f .) Royle. Presented by Garrett Noles. Common Names + Synonyms. Common- Hydrilla , water thyme, Florida elodea

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Hydrilla verticillata l f royle

Hydrillaverticillata (L.f.) Royle

Presented by

Garrett Noles


Common names synonyms
Common Names + Synonyms

  • Common- Hydrilla, water thyme, Florida elodea

  • Latin binomials- Hottoniaserrata, Hydrillaangustifolia, Hydrillaovalifolia, Leptanthesverticillata, Serpiculaverticillata, Elodea verticillata

Photo by USDA/ARS

www.cal-ipc.org


Taxonomy
Taxonomy

  • Family- Hydrocharitaceae (Tape-grass family)

  • Reproduction- Mainly vegetative propagation

  • Dioecious (mostly in US) & rarely monoecious

  • Morphology- Stems: long and slender, white in color

  • Leaves- dark green, strap shaped, saw-toothed margins

  • Grow in dense clusters, branching towards surface of water

www.cal-ipc.org


Turions
Turions

  • Turions- “dark green buds on some leaf axils”

  • Subterranean turions- yellow tuber like buds attached to root folicles

plants.ifas.ufl.edu


Current distribution of hydrilla verticillata
Current distribution of Hydrillaverticillata

USDA Plants 2010


Ecological impacts
Ecological Impacts

  • Can outcompete other desirable aquatic plants

  • Can slow water flow thus increase water temperature

  • Can use the oxygen resources in a water body

  • Some evidence of allelopathy discouraging plant biodiversity (if interested view starred paper)

  • Can alter important freshwater fish habitat


Economic impacts
Economic Impacts

  • Can reduce water recreation

  • Turions and fragments can clog irrigation canals

  • Can reduce hydropower productivity

  • Mechanical and chemical treatments can add up over a period of time to be costly


Biological control
Biological Control

  • Hydrilla leaf-mining fly and hydrilla tuber weevil

  • Both found in India mid 80’s

  • Are major species specific predators for Hydrilla

plants.ifas.ufl.edu


Insect herbivory effects
Insect Herbivory Effects

  • 14,000 L tanks

  • Each divided into 32 sections

  • Competition tests and herbivory tests in different tanks

  • Concluded that combo of bio controls are most effective

Doyle et.al. 2007


Bio control cont
Bio Control Cont.

  • Another biological enemy to hydrilla from Asia

  • Grow fast, and consume tubers/turions!

  • However, grass carp are not species specific foragers

Ctenopharyngodonidella (Grass Carp)

www.ecy.wa.gov


Effectiveness of grass carp
Effectiveness of Grass Carp

  • Consume large amounts until they reach maximum size

  • Smaller fish consume more vegetation

  • Once size limit is reached, no longer a great control agent

Osborne 1981


Chemical controls
Chemical Controls

  • Endothall (Aquathol K)

  • Can be used selectively

  • Kills vegetation, not tubers

  • Diquat (Reward)

  • Is effected by water solids(silt)

  • Usually used for one season

  • Reward prices vary, check local provider ($130-150/gallon)

  • Aquathol powder form prices also vary ( $240-260/10 lbs)

  • Aquathol liquid form ($240-260/ 2.5 gallons)

www.ecy.wa.gov


Work cited
Work Cited

  • California Invasive Plant Council (2010)Cal-IPC Resources on Hydrillaverticillata. http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/plant_profiles/Hydrilla_verticillata.php, April 18, 2010.

  • Doyle R, Grodowitz M, Smart M, Owens C (2007) Separate and interactive effects of competition and herbivory on the growth, expansion, and tuber formation of Hydrillaverticillata. Biological Control 41: 327-338.

  • Kulshreshtha M, Gopal B (1983) Allelopathic influence of Hydrillaverticillata on the distribution of Ceratophyllum species. Aquatic Botany 16: 207-209. *

  • Osborne JA, Sassic NM (1981) The size of grass carp as a factor in the control of Hydrilla. Aquatic Botany 11: 129-136.

  • University of Florida IFAS (2009) Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/node/183, April 17, 2010

  • USDA, ARS. 2010. The Agriculture Research Service Database (http://www.ars.usda.gov, 21 April 2010). ARS Headquarters, Washington DC, 20250.


Work cited cont
Work Cited Cont.

  • USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 21 April 2010). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

  • Washington State Department of Ecology (2010) Aquatic Plant Management- Aquatic Herbicides. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/management/aqua028.html, April 16, 2010.

  • Washington State Department of Ecology (2010) Aquatic Plant Management- Triploid Grass Carp. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/management/aqua024.html, April 17, 2010.