The Revolutionary Genius of. José de San Martín. By Jacki, Joanna, Brittany, Ashley, Sam and Brett. Early Life. Born the Son of Spanish Juan de San Martín and Gregoria Matorras on February 25, 1778 in Yapeyú, a small village in Corrientes, Argentina. In 1781, the family moved
José de San Martín
By Jacki, Joanna, Brittany, Ashley, Sam and Brett
On May 16, 1811, he participated on the Battle of Albuera under the command of General William Carr Beresford. During the battle he met Scottish Lord MacDuff (James Duff, the Fourth Earl of Fife) who introduced him to the lodges that were plotting the South American independence efforts. San Martín requested resignation from the Spanish army, which was granted.
In October, when news of the victory of the Army of the North (Spanish, Ejército del Norte) commanded by Manuel Belgrano reached Buenos Aires, the Lautaro Lodge initiated political pressure, backed by San Martín armed forces and popular demand, to impose its candidates into government, thus forcing the First Triumvirate to an end and initiating the Second Triumvirate with members Juan José Paso, Nicolás Rodríguez
Peña, and Antonio Álvarez Jonte (Rodríguez Peña and Álvarez Jonte were members of the lodge). This new government strengthened the position held by the Army, and decided to lay siege to Montevideo, which was controlled by loyalist to the Spanish Crown. On December 7, 1812, San Martín was promoted to Colonel.
First military action in South America: On January 28, 1813, San Martín with his Mounted Granadiers (comprising around 150 soldiers) was sent to protect the Paraná River shore from the Spanish Fleet of 11 ships under command of General José Zavala. On the morning of February 3, the Spanish forces of around 250 men disembarked and fought against San Martín in the Battle of San Lorenzo.
In Córdoba, San Martín continued preparing his plan of attacking Lima –the Capital city of the Viceroyalty of Peru– through Chile. To this end, he requested to be appointed governor of Cuyo. During his term, he made tax collection stricter, farm workers were reglamented, ordered a massive vaccination against small pox, and founded a library. He also reorganized the mail service to strengthen its security. Meanwhile, he tried to exhort other provinces to declare independence.
On February 12, 1817, the Battle of Chacabuco was fought. Jose de San Martin (General) was victorious.
Since the Battle of Chacabuco, San Martín had urged both governments of Santiago and Buenos Aires to build a fleet on the Pacific. Convoys had been sent to the United States and England in order to buy and hire several ships, however, lack of political cohesion in Argentina, a Spanish blockade in Valparaiso, and the Battles of Cancha Rayada and Maipú heavily delayed the project.