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Mixtures and Solutions. Get seated. Get out notebooks and begin notes. Mixtures and Solutions. A mixture is a combination of two or more components that are NOT chemically combined, and retain their identities.

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get seated get out notebooks and begin notes mixtures and solutions
Get seated. Get out notebooks and begin notes. Mixtures and Solutions
  • A mixture is a combination

of two or more components that

are NOT chemically combined,

and retain their identities.

  • Mixtures can be physically separated. The identities of the substances DO NOT change.
  • A homogeneous mixture is also called a


  • When a mixture’s components are easily recognizable, such as pizza, it is called a heterogeneous mixture.
  • In ahomogeneous mixture such
  • as chocolate milk, the component particles cannot be distinguished,
  • even though they still retain their
  • original properties.
  • Common Techniques for Separating Mixtures

Distillation – separates a mixture based on boiling points of the component.

Examples :


crude oil into gasoline and kerosene

Magnet– separates iron from other objects.

Centrifuge – spins and separates according to densities.

  • A mixture that appears to be a single substance but is composed of particles of two or more substances that are distributed evenly amongst each other.
  • A solution may be liquid, gaseous, or solid.

Examples of solutions

Liquid - seawater

Gas - air

Solid - alloys

parts of a solution
Parts of a Solution
  • SOLUTE – the part of a solution that is being dissolved (usually the lesser amount)
  • SOLVENT – the part of a solution that dissolves the solute (usually the greater amount)
  • Solute + Solvent = Solution
  • Dissolving – The process in which

particles of substances separate and

spread evenly amongst each other.

  • Solute – substance that is dissolved. A solute is
  • soluble, or able to dissolve.
  • A substance that is insoluble is unable to
  • dissolve, forms a mixture that is not
  • homogeneous, and therefore NOT a solution.
  • Solvent– substance in which solute is dissolved.

Solutions can be classified as saturated or unsaturated or super-saturated.

A saturated solution contains the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature.

An unsaturated solution contains less than the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve at a particular temperature


SUPERSATURATED SOLUTIONS contain more solute than is possible to be dissolved

Supersaturated solutions are unstable. The supersaturation is only temporary, and usually accomplished in one of two ways:

  • Warm the solvent so that it will dissolve more, then cool the solution
  • Evaporate some of the solvent carefully so that the solute does not solidify and come out of solution.
  • The solubility of a solute is the amount of solute needed to make a saturated solution using a given amount of solvent at a certain temperature.
  • Solubility is usually expressed in grams of solute per 100 ml of solvent (g/100ml)
  • Three (3) methods that affect solubility
    • Mixing, stirring, or shaking
    • Heating
    • Crushing or grinding
  • A mixture in which particles of

a material are dispersed through-

out a liquid or gas but are large

enough that they settle out.

    • Particles are insoluble, so they DO NOT dissolve in the liquid or gas.
    • Particles can be separated using a filter.
      • Examples:
      • Salad dressing
      • Medicines that say

“shake well before use”

  • A mixture in which the particles are dispersed throughout but are not heavy enough to settle out.
  • Made up of solids, liquids and gases.
    • Examples :
      • Mayonnaise
      • Stick deodorant
      • Milk
      • Jello
      • Whipped cream
      • Peanut butter
my quickie definitions
My Quickie Definitions
  • Unsaturated – Can hold some more
  • Saturated – Can’t hoolllddd nooo moorre
  • Super-saturated – Found a way to make it hold more
  • Solubility – ability to be dissolved