Conditionals Prof. Cynthia Garcia
Conditional (“If”) Sentences • If sentences are used to discuss things that happen based on the condition that something else happens. There are three main types of if sentences.
3 types of conditionals • Use an if sentence in the first conditional to consider real, possible events in the present or future: • If it rains, I'll take an umbrella. • Use an if sentences in the second conditional to speculate about unreal, improbable events in the present moment or future: • If I had a million dollars, I'd buy a big house. • An if sentence in the third conditional concerns imaginary (unreal) outcomes of past events: • If he had spent more time studying, he would have passed the exam.
If Sentence Forms Overview: • If Sentence # 1 = First Conditional • If + S + present simple + objects, S + will + verb + objects -> If the boys finish their homework early, they will play baseball. • If Sentence # 2 = Second Conditional • If + S + past simple + objects, S + would + verb + objects -> If he bought a new car, he would buy a Ford. • If Sentence # 3 = Third Conditional • If + S + past perfect + objects, S + would have + past participle + objects -> If she had seen him, she would have discussed the issues with him.
Match the first part of the sentence on the left with the correct ending on the right. • 1. If I were hungry... • 2. If I were thirsty... • 3. I would go to the dentist... • 4. I would buy a wig... • 5. I would quit my job... • 6. If I saw a bad car accident... • 7. I would move... • 8. If I spoke Spanish... • 9. If I failed the course... • 10. The boss would fire me… • A. if I were bald. • B. if the neighbors were very noisy. • C. I would take it again. • D. if I came to work late again. • E. I would eat something. • F. if I had to work overtime every day. • G. I would move to Mexico. • H. I would make some lemonade. • I. I would call an ambulance. • J. if I had a tooth ache.
Directions: Read the conditional sentences below and answer the questions that follow each one. • Ex. If it weren’t raining, I would go for a long walk. a. Is it raining? Yes. b. Am I going for a long walk? No. • 1. If I knew her well, I would call her. • a. Do I know her well? _____ • b. Am I going to call her? _____ • 2. If he had a university degree, he would apply for the job. • a. Does he have a university degree? _____ • b. Is he going to apply for the job? _____ • c. Does he want to apply for the job? _____
Read the examples below using hope and wish and the first and second condition. • I hope it is sunny tomorrow. If it is sunny, I will go to the beach. • I hope I get the job. If I get the job, we will go to a restaurant and celebrate. • I wish I were ten years younger. If I were younger, I would travel around the world. • I wish I didn’t have to work tonight. If I didn’t have to work, I would go to your party.
Read the examples below using hope and wish and the first and second condition. • 1. I hope I pass the exam. If ______________________ • 2. I hope John comes to the party. If ________________ • 3. I wish I had a dog. If __________________________ • 4. I wish I could speak Spanish fluently. If ____________ • 5. I wish I lived in a bigger apartment. If _____________ • 6. I wish I weren’t so shy. If ______________________ • 7. I hope I win the tennis match tomorrow. If ________ • 8. I wish I could afford to travel. If _________________ • 9. I hope the plane arrives on time. If _______________ • 10. I wish I knew her address. If ___________________
Exercises • 1. I leave on Saturdays • A. if she will come to visit. • B. if she comes to visit. • C. if she won't come to visit. • 2. If he were President, • A. he would help the poor more. • B. he will help the poor more. • C. he would have helped the poor more. • 3. I might have had time • A. if you needed my help. • B. if you had asked me for help. • C. if you ask me for help. • 4. I'm afraid I can't understand you • A. if you speak unclear. • B. unless you speak more clearly. • C. if you don't speak clear.
cont. exercises • 5. If they had had enough good sense, • A. they would move to Santa Monica. • B. they would have moved to Santa Monica. • C. they would had moved to Santa Monica. • 6. She will go crazy • A. if you leaves her. • B. unless she leaves you. • C. if she don't leave you. • 7. She would have gone • A. if she had been in your position. • B. if she were in your position. • C. if she was in your position. • 8. You would certainly have been angry • A. if you discovered what he knew. • B. if you had discovered what he knew. • C. if you had discovered what he had known.
cont. exercises • 9. If this storm gets worse, • A. we will have to go inland. • B. we have to get inland. • C. we must to go inland. • 10. Watch out! If you touch that cable, • A. you will get a shock. • B. you shocked. • C. you had a shock.