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Diet. Objectives Students will be able to: grasp the text organization and general idea of the text; 2. learn to use cause-and-effect analysis in presenting an argument; learn to cite authorities and statistics for an eloquent essay;

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Students will be able to:

grasp the text organization and general idea of the text;

2. learn to use cause-and-effect analysis in presenting an argument; learn to cite authorities and statistics for an eloquent essay;

3. master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;

4. conduct a series of looking, listening, discussing, reading and writing activities related to the theme of the unit.

pre reading tasks have ss listen to the tape and answer the following questions
Pre-reading tasks (Have Ss listen to the tape and answer the following questions.)
  • a. How did the speaker make up his mind to become a vegetarian?
  • b. Why did he think his mother couldn’t become a vegetarian?
  • c. Is it always healthy to be on a diet? Why?
  • d. What kind of diet do you think is the most healthful?
IV. While-reading Tasks
  • · Of the four types of writing --- description, narration, exposition, and argumentation --- which type do you think the present text belongs to? (argumentation)
The structure of the text
  • Part I: Paragraphs 1-4
  • The main idea : Many people are now shifting away from meat.
  • Presentation: At the very beginning, the author lists the advantages of choosing not to eat meat to make the choice more desirable and he continues (in Para 3)to tell us a fact that many Canadians have actually put it into practice.
Part II: Paragraphs 5-29
  • The main idea : There are several reasons for choosing a vegetarian lifestyle.
  • Presentation : In this part, the author analyses why people have made such a change. The reasons are as the follows:
  • Paragraphs 5-12 health and food safety concerns
  • Paragraphs 13-20 environment concerns
  • Paragraphs 21-29 animal rights concerns
  • The text is developed mainly by cause-and-effect analysis. Teacher asks the students to find out the causes that leads to the effect (Animal-based agriculture is one of the most environmentally destructive industries on the face of the Earth.)
Part III: Paragraphs 30-32
  • The main idea :The author urges his readers to decide on a vegetarian diet for the benefit of all concerned.
  • Presentation :The author quotes the words of Albert Einstein to make his argument more persuasive. The 3rd part echoes the 1st part.
·Language learning

1. refer to: mention or speak of (sb. / sth.)

  • Examples:
  • She referred to the subject several times during her speech.
  • Jack was careful not to refer to the woman by name.

2. unparalleled: (fml) so great, etc. that it has no equal

  • Examples:
  • He has an unparalleled knowledge of local history.
  • They enjoyed success on a scale unparalleled by any previous pop group.
3. uncover: discover sth. previously secret or unknown
  • Examples:
  • The initial investigation failed to uncover a number of important facts.
  • Troops uncovered a terrorist training camp.

4. chronic: lasting for a long time; continually recurring

  • Examples:
  • There was a chronic shortage of housing in the city twenty years ago.
  • The country has been in the chronic state of civil war for more than ten years.
5. boost: increase the strength or value of (sth.)
  • Examples:
  • The main drawback of the scheme is its expense.
  • Their share price climbed again today, boosted by rising sales.
  • The change of management has boosted morale throughout the company.

6. devoid of: without (sth.); completely lacking in (sth.)

  • Examples:
  • Rob’s face was devoid of any warmth.
  • The film was completely devoid of interest.
7. infect: (of harmful bacteria, etc.) enter the body of a person or an animal and cause disease (followed by/ with)
  • Examples:
  • If you return to work too soon, you may infect other people.
  • You can only be infected with HIV in a limited number of ways.

8. retrieve: get (sth.) back

  • Examples:
  • She stooped to retrieve the key from the ground.
  • The police are continuing their rescue efforts to retrieve the bodies of the victims
9. heighten: (cause sth. to) become higher or more intense, intensify
  • Examples:
  • An educational effort to heighten awareness about global warming is currently underway.
  • As the feeling of panic heightened, people started to flee towards the exits.

10. edible: fit or suitable to be eaten

  • Examples:
  • The food in the cafeteria is barely edible(= it tastes very bad).
  • We are told that only the leaves of the plant are edible.
11. get out: produce or publish


  • They said they'd try to get the new dictionary out by the end of the year.
  • He got out the story to the papers.

12. contaminate: pollute (sth.) by din, chemicals, or radiation so that it becomes impure or harmful

  • Examples:
  • Industrial sewage continues to contaminate our beaches.
  • Large-scale releases of hazardous materials may cause thousands of deaths and contaminate air, water, and soil for many years.
13. exclude: ignore as a consideration; leave (sth.) out; not to include (sth.) (used in the pattern: exclude sb. / sth. from)
  • Examples:
  • The committed now has to decide whether to exclude him from the competition.
  • These costs have been excluded from our calculations.

14. potent: very effective and powerful

  • Examples:
  • Images from the war are still potent today.
  • The local wine is pretty potent.

15. utter: complete

  • Examples:
  • It has all been an utter waste of time.
  • She gazed at me in utter confusion.
student presentation
Student Presentation

Directions: You are required to look up the following words and expressions in the dictionary and give a brief presentation in class.

  • Fuel
  • trace
  • bow
  • intake
  • package
  • process
  • tour
  • urge
  • charge
  • confine
Paraphrase some sentences
  • Fueling the shift toward vegetarianism…… (L.11)
  • We’ve running the human biological engine on the wrong fuel. (L.19)
  • It’s like playing Russian roulette with your health. (L.31)
  • This should come as no surprise. (L.38)
  • …… to fuel the demand for land (L.52)
vocabulary exercises
vocabulary exercises

Section A

  • Directions: from the four choices given under each sentence, choose the ONE that is closest in meaning to the underlined word or expression
  • 1.The prime minister’s speech fuelled speculation that she is about to resign.

a. make stronger b. supply with fuel

c. fill with oil d. cause to burn more intensely

  • 2. Scientists have been criticized for devoting an inordinate amount of time to research on animal.

a. enormous b. excessive

c. endless d. unduly

  • 3. Eventually the government was forced to bow to public pressure and reform the tax.

a. bend before b. relieve

c. accept unwillingly d. confront

4. The architect’s sketches will enable you to form some idea of the layout of the new medical center.

a. daydream b. fantasize

c. hallucinate d. picture

  • 5. I was standing waiting for a bus, wedged between two old ladies and their bags of shopping.

a. crowded b. compacted

c. squeezed d. fixed

  • 6. He could not find the words to tell her that he was leaving.

a. have a word or two to say to her b. have a word with he

c. tell her very well d. put in a good word

  • 7. His parents were poor and couldn’t afford to give him an allowance.

a. pocket money b. pension

c. welfare d. benefit

  • 8. I apologized for my bad behavior and the matter was never referred to again.

a. discussed b. mentioned

c. raised d. arisen

9. After losing all his money in a matter of months, Archer’s subsequent
  • recovery was equally dramatic.

a. exciting b. sudden

c. disappointing d. infuriating

  • 10. There has been a big shift in attitudes toward sex during the past 50 years.

a. denunciation b. acknowledgement

c. movement d. change

  • 11. Young new potatoes are best served coated in butter and sprinkled with fresh mint.

a. concealed b. stuffed

c. covered d. mixed

  • 12. The Thomas starfish is said to have decimated the corals of the Great Barrier Reef.

a. disturbed b. affected

c. slashed d. killed

  • 13. Cholera is spread by the contamination of food and water by faeces.

a. destruction b. pollution

c. spoilage d. dirt

14. The group has a devoted teenage audience and regularly plays to stadiums filled with squealing fans.

a. wailing b. snapping

c. yelping d. shrieking

  • 15. The public library service definitely deteriorated under the last government.

a. demolished b. collapsed

c. decayed d. degraded

  • 16. He slept badly, thrashing from side to side all night.

a. being tossed and turned b. tossing about in bed

c. being turned a lot d. jerking hard

  • 17. You can’t afford to miss that film.

a. The film is beyond your means so don’t go and see it.

b. You are so busy that you miss the film.

c. The film is so good that you should see it.

d. What a pity you missed that film!

  • 18. Ford has announced plans to shed almost half its workforce at the factory.

a. expire b. dismiss

c. suspend d. expel

19. The problem was caused by a loose piece of metal that got jammed between two of the machine’s moving parts.

a. crammed b. squeezed

c. stuck d. stuffed

20. Aid workers were said to have been filled with dismay by the appalling conditions that the refugees were living in.

a. embarrassment b. indignation

c. annoyance

Section B
  • Directions: For each of the following sentences there are four choices marked a, b, c and d. Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence
  • 21. The company is ______ for paying its bills late, so don’t try to get anything there.

a. famous b. notorious

c. noted d. renowned

  • 22. All the tomato plants are ______ a virus. I’m afraid we should call in experts.

a. affected with b. killed by

c. effected by d. infected with

  • 23. Computers are used to store and ______ information efficiently.

a. retrieve b. key out

c. retract d. clip

24. One of the ______ of copper is that it conducts heat and electricity very well.

a. properties b. features

c. characters d. attributes

  • 25. It was a ______ argument --- even those who had disagreed with him changed their attitudes

a. comparing b. compressing

c. compelling d. compromising

  • 26. The mine in that poor African country is the ______ of much of the world’s uranium.

a. resources b. origin

c. resource d. source

  • 27. The two young men spent 6 months in jail waiting to be _____.

a. slaughtered b. massacred

c. executed d. exterminated

  • 28. As a young film star, she was ______ as a sex symbol.

a. packaged b. packed

c. disguised d. camouflage

29. Fears of an invasion were ______ by long-range bomb attacks.

a. broadened b. strengthened

c. escalated d. heightened

  • 30. Sales were so good that even with 24 hour shifts we could hardly ______ demand.

a. me up with b. keep pace with

c. catch up with d. strike a balance between

  • 31. As executive editor of the Times, he held a position of almost ______ power in American Journalism.

a. unrecorded b. unpredictable

c. unparalleled d. unpalatable

  • 32. There used to be a ______ shortage of housing, so it was common to see three generations living under a single roof.

a. chronic b. chronicle

c. chronological d. chronographical

  • 33. She cared for her stepmother with unfailing ______ throughout her long illness.

a. contribution b. devotion

c. fidelity d. donation

34. After five years in the political ______, she was recalled to be foreign minister.

a. plateau b. wilderness

c. valley d. desert

  • 35. He used to be very rightwing, but he’s undergone something of a ______ recently.

a. transaction b. conversion

c. conservation d. transformation

  • 36. “What was the food like?”“It wasn’t excellent, but it was certainly ______.”

a. edible b. eatable

c. fit for human consumption d. able to be eaten

  • 37. ______ are the excrement from animals, especially horses, which is spread on the land in order to make plants grow well.

a. Manor b. Manoeuvre

c. Manual d. Manure

  • 38. He is in trouble this time. The police have said they’re going to ______.

a. press charges b. bring charge

c. charge with him d. take charge

39. People who wanted to get rid of old cars sometimes _____ them in the wood.

a. processed b. dismantled

c. dumped d. flung

  • 40. The ranks of teaching profession are rapidly _____ by those dropping out.

a. lessened b. trimmed

c. lowered d. depleted

  • 41. He drowned in the hotel swimming pool after drinking a (n) ______ mix of whisky, gin and vodka.

a. potent b. forceful

c. odd d. exotic

  • 42. If traffic increases beyond a certain level, the city ______ to a halt.

a. brings b. grinds

c. screeches d. falls

  • 43. The play will be performed first in London, and will then _____ the rest of the country.

a. travel b. journey

c. trip d. tour

44. A(n) ______ decimal is a number that repeats itself forever following a decimal point, such as 3.3333…

a. concurring b. recurring

c. occurring d. incurring

  • 45. If the others ever found out he’s ______ on them, they’d kill him.

a. streamed b. squealed

c. shrieked d. screeched

  • 46. Two hours lying back in the hot bath after a sweating workday was ______ bliss.

a. purely b. simply

c. utter d. straight

  • 47. Even though Mike got ______ in his first two fights, he was determined to continue with his boxing career.

a. thrashed b. overwhelmed

c. conquered d. routed

  • 48. That seat _____ her an uninterrupted view of stage.

a. wasn’t able to afford b. was able to afford

c. was afforded d. afforded

49. He became chairman of the Reserve Bank and remained its head until ______ in 1928.

a. he died untimely death b. his untimely death

c. he died in an untime manner d. his untime death

  • 50. My husband ______ so loudly that I find it difficult to get to sleep.

a. sniffs b. snores

c. snorts d. sighs







v post reading tasks
V. Post-reading Tasks
  • 1. Ss scan the text again to locate places where the authorities and statistics are cited. Ss discuss the reason why the author quotes authorities and statistics.
  • 2. Pro-con discussion:

Should we diet in order to keep fit?

  • 1. Being overweight is bad for one's health because it leads to heart disease, high blood pressure, etc.
  • 2. Medical science has proved that animal fats and an excessive amount of sugar are harmful to one's health.
  • 3. Fat people suffer psychologically and physically.
  • 4. It is hard for fat men and women to get ready-made clothes.
  • 5. Fat men and women are unattractive to look at.
6. Fat people get tired easily.
  • 7. Fat people should put themselves on a diet because they eat more than they really need.
  • 8. Dieting is associated with sensible and rational living.
  • 9. Dieting leads to longevity.
  • 10. Dieting enables people to enjoy life more.
  • 11. Obese people are often objects of ridicule owing to their abnormal figures.
  • 1. Dieting does more harm than good to one's health for the simple reason that a dieter suffer constantly from malnutrition.
  • 2. Dieters lead a miserable life because they are forever hungry and, at the same time, they have to go through the torture of watching others enjoy their three meals a day.
  • 3. Dieters do not enjoy life fully. They miss one of the most important things in good food.
4. Many people diet not because they really want to live a healthy life, but because they are vain.
  • 5. Many dieters are merely fashion followers. They will undertake gaining weight if being fat becomes fashionable one day.
  • 6. What dieters are interested in is nothing but the battle against spreading hips, protruding tummies, double chins, etc.
  • 7. Dieters may lose some weight. Once they stop, however, they gain weight again, which is more harmful to one's health.
  • 8. Those on a diet are simply senseless. They try to keep their "good figures" at the expense of their health.
Cultural Notes
  • 1. Human Nutrition: Human beings require food to grow, reproduce, and maintain good health.
  • Without food, our bodies could not stay warm, build or repair tissue, or maintain a heartbeat.
  • Eating the right foods can help us avoid certain diseases or recover faster when illness occurs.
  • These and other important functions are fueled by chemical substances in our food called nutrients. Nutrients are classified as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water.
2. Vegetarianism and health:
  • People have adopted vegetarian diets based on scientific studies showing that diets high in fatty animal foods may contribute to the early development of disease, including obesity, coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. The United States Surgeon General's 1988 report on nutrition and health urged Americans to reduce their intakes of animal fats, such as those found in meat and dairy products, and to increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.