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  1. To Kill a Mockingbird: In Class Notes

  2. Chapter Annotation Guide Chapter___________: • Thematic Quote: _______________________________________________________ • Analytical Statement: • In To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee uses, _____ (literary element)to show ______ (achieve what purpose). For example, _____________ (evidence from the text to support the topic sentence). _____________________(reflective commentary). _____________________ (sentence of Closure). • Summary Paragraph: _______________________________________________________ • Prediction for the next chapter: _______________________________________________________

  3. Chapter One • Bell Work: A flashback is an interruption in the sequence of events to relate events that occurred in the past. If you were to make this novel into a film, what cinematic technique would you use to portray the novel is a flashback? Consider how modern T.V. shows show flashbacks.

  4. Chapter One • As we read the opening of To Kill a Mockingbird, shout out MOCKINGBIRD for the parts that indicate the story is a flashback. • In addition, note what you are learning about the narrator and her perspective, both from what she talks about and from the language used. Also create a character list for this chapter.

  5. Chapter One • Ticket Out the Door • Establish the point of view: • How old does the narrator seem to be? • How does the age effect the telling of the story?

  6. Chapter Two and Three • Bell work: Define a metaphor and give an example using information from the text.

  7. Chapter Two and Three • Double Entry Journaling: This will help you recognize how Harper Lee creates and sustains the character of Boo Radley. He becomes a metaphor for how to fight the poison of _______________. • Look for changes in the way that Jem and Scout react to Boo.

  8. Chapter Two and Three • Text-to-Self - Ex. First day of school, how you learned to read. • Text-to-World - Ex. Scout and Miss Caroline relate to teachers struggles today with students • Text-to-Text - Ex. First-person point of view that students are familiar with.

  9. Chapter Two T.O.D • Chapter 2: 1. What “problem” did Scout run into on her first day of school? • 2. What did the teacher, Miss Caroline, need to learn about the Cunninghams?

  10. Chapter Three - Schools and Creativity Identify ways in which you learn the most effectively. Identify how Sir Ken Robinson suggests school kills creativity. Use the book to summarize Scout’s first day at school. How was Ms. Caroline killing Scouts creativity and desire to learn? Using information from the TEDTalk ARGUE whether or not Ms. Caroline is killing her creativity.

  11. Chapter Three - Adults Can Learn from Kids Identify ways in which someone can behave childishly. Identify how AdoraSvitak suggests that there is great insight to be gained from children. How does she say adults hamper themselves? Why is this bad? Use the book to summarize Scout’s first day at school. How was Ms. Caroline killing Scouts creativity and desire to learn? Using information from the TEDTalk ARGUE whether or not Ms. Caroline should embrace children and what they have to offer.

  12. Chapter Four and Five • Bell Work: Think Pair Share • Tell a shoulder partner a story of pranks you pulled as a child. Why did you practice them? How did they help or harm your relationships?

  13. Chapter Four and Five • Good readers make predictions while they read, and then they confirm or negate these predictions based on the information in the text. • Record details about the growing relationships between Boo and the children, and predict what you think is likely to happen.

  14. Chapter Four and Five • Writing Prompt: Write a diary entry in Boo’s voice (first person) commenting on the children’s pranks. Be sure to show his attitude using word choice and sensory details. • __________________________________________________

  15. Chapter Six and Seven • Bell Work: To inference and to draw conclusions are some of the techniques used by strong readers. To infer means to “read between the lines.” Consider the statement, “go to your room.” What conclusions can you make based on this statement?

  16. Chapter Six and Seven

  17. Chapter Eight • Bell Work: Write the definition • Motif: a unifying element in an artistic work, especially any recurrent image, symbol, theme, character type, subject, or narrative detail.

  18. Chapter Eight Lessons from the Neighborhood – Who is Arthur Radley? • In small groups, answer the following questions to discuss the character of Boo Radley as a motif. Who is most affected by the contacts the children have had with Boo (Arthur Radley)? How do you know, and what has been the effect? Quote: _______________________________________________________________ Review the rumors and gossip the children hear about Boo. What is the effect of all that stereotyping? What is the truth of the rumors, gossip, and stereotyping? Quote: _______________________________________________________________ What has been Atticus’s role in the children’s relationship to Boo? Quote: _______________________________________________________________ • Discuss Harper Lee’s purpose in including this story of the children and Boo Radley. What are the children learning from this experience as they come of age in Maycomb, Alabama?

  19. Chapter Eight • Once you have written down your responses to the question, have them checked and find supporting quotes before the class discussion begins. • Draw Images of the Symbols repeated that may also be motifs…

  20. Chapter Nine: Levels of Questions Level 1 – Questions of Fact: What did the text say? • For example: When did Atticus scold Scout for fighting? • 1. • 2. • 3. Level 2 – Questions of Interpretation: What does the text mean? • For example: Why does Jen encourage Scout to ask Atticus about Cecil Jacob’s comments instead of just explaining them to her? • 1. • 2. • 3. Level 3 – Questions that go beyond the text: Why does it matter? • For example: How do you explain racism to a child? • 1. • 2. • 3.  

  21. Chapter Nine • Class Discussion, make sure you have at least one question checked off during class discussion. • I found this discussion helpful because _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ .

  22. Chapter Ten Dialogue and Predictions of Novel Title • Most novels and short stories contain dialogue, as do some nonfiction forms, such as memoirs and biographies. In dialogue, the speaker’s exact words are always enclosed in quotation marks. The rules for using other punctuation marks with quotations include the following: • A ___________ quotation can be set off from the rest of a sentence by a comma, a questions mark, or an exclamation mark. • ________________ and _______________ are placed inside quotation marks. • ________________ and _______________ are placed outside of closing quotation marks. • Question marks and exclamations marks are placed ________________ IF the quotation itself is a question of exclamation.

  23. Chapter Ten • Find examples of each type of dialogue • Example of direct quotation: • Example of commas and periods inside quotations: • Example of colons and semicolons placed outside of closing quotation marks: • Example of question marks and exclamation marks placed inside the quotations marks:

  24. Chapter Ten T.O.D • In chapter ten, read the three paragraphs that follow the quote, “When he gave us our air rifles Atticus wouldn’t teach us to shoot.” • How does Miss Maudie’s information about mockingbirds add to Atticus’s comment that “it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird”?

  25. Chapter Eleven • Pin the Quote on Atticus • On an index card, write quotations of important things Atticus says that teach Jem and Scout about people and life. Share a quote with the class, and discuss why you selected it before you “pin” the quote on Atticus. • Sample:

  26. Character Web • Now let’s create a character web for traits that Atticus has.

  27. Chapter Twelve and Thirteen Two Dramatic Developments in Jem and Scout’s Life: the visit to First Purchase African M.E. Church and Aunt Alexandra’s arrival for a prolonged stay. • Bell Work: Have you ever gone to a presentation, church sermon, class lecture, conference where you felt out of place? Why did you feel that way? If not, have you ever taken someone where they feel uncomfortable? • _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  28. Chapter Twelve and Thirteen New Vocabulary • Dynamic: comes from the Greek word meaning “powerful.” • Static: comes from a Greek word, statikos, referring to a stand or a pause or something fixed. (statue) • Analyzing the significance of a new character in a novel is an important skill. Calpurnia shows in these chapters that she is more than just a static character.

  29. Chapter Twelve and Thirteen Find at least 4 quotes showing what Cal values and then EXPLAIN why this shows her as a more dynamic character. Quote:___________________________________________________________________ • Explanation: ____________________________________________________________________________________ Quote: ____________________________________________________________ • Explanation: ____________________________________________________________ Quote: __________________________________________________________________________ • Explanation: ________________________________________________________________________ Quote: ________________________________________________________________________ • Explanation: ____________________________________________________________

  30. Chapter Twelve and Thirteen You will be assigned a group of three for discussion. Each group will be asked to answer one of the following questions. You are responsible for answer the quotes finding details from the text to support your answer, presenting your information, and writing down the other presenters information. • What details does Scout provide when describing Calpurnia’s church? The events of the service? What do these reveal about the nature of the Quarters as a community, especially in contrast to life in Scout and Jem’s own neighborhood? • This scene shows that Calpurnia is a dynamic rather than a static character. What is revealed about Calpurnia through the conflict with Lula? Through Scout’s conversation with her following the service? • Based on the events of this chapter, what values does Calpurnia seem to represent in the book? Find quotes that support your conclusion. • How do Calpurnia and the trip to her church influence Scout’s perspective? Find quotes that support your conclusions regarding the impact of the church scene and the conversation on Scout’s view of the world. • Describe the shift regarding Calpurnia that occurs in the first sentence of Chapter 13. How else is Calpurnia referred to during this chapter? • Why does Scout say “Aunt Alexandra fitted into the world of Maycomb like a hand into a glove”? How is this connected to the extended description of Maycomb’s history in this chapter? • What is revealed about Aunt Alexandra through Scout’s conversation with her about Cousin Lily and Cousin Joshua? Through Atticus’s conversation with Scout and Jem on her behalf? • Based on the events in this chapter, what values does Aunt Alexandra represent? Find quotations that support your conclusion.

  31. Chapter Fourteen Now that you have examined the significance of setting and characters, it is time to write thematic statements. A THEMATIC STATEMENT ARTICULATES YOUR INTERPREATION OF THE TEXT’S CENTRAL MEANING OR MESSAGE! Let’s work on a few together and then you will need to create a few of your own. • Character: Aunt Alexandra’s fascination with family history symbolizes • Conflict: The confrontation between Calpurnia and Lula shows that • Setting: The trip to Calpurnia’s church reveals that • Character: ___________________________________________________________________________ • Conflict: ___________________________________________________________________________ • Setting: ___________________________________________________________________________

  32. Chapter Fifteen 1. The trouble begins, the “hot summer” is started, and “a nightmare was upon us” (144). Who is Mr. Braxton Underwood? _____________________________ 2. What is unusual about the Finches in church? 3. Where did Atticus go that night? 4. Were Atticus’s fears justified? 5. Why does Scout refer to the whispered conversation in front of the jail as a “sickeningly comic . . . unfunny situation” (151)?

  33. Chapter Sixteen • Chapter 16: 1. What is unusual about Underwood’s defense of Atticus and Robinson the night of the mob? ______________________________________________________ • 2. Who is Dolphus Raymond, and in 1935 Maycomb and many parts of the world today, what is unusual about him? _______________________________________________ • 3. Where did the three children end up sitting? ________________________________ • 4. Is this separated seating arrangement unusual in Maycomb? YES NO

  34. Chapter Seventeen • Chapter 17: 1. Who is the prosecuting attorney? ______________________________ • 2. *Whose word did Heck Tate take about the episode when he first went to the Ewells’? • ____________________________________________________________________ • 3. What did Atticus want to show with his right/left side questions? • ____________________________________________________________________

  35. Chapter Eighteen • Chapter 18: 1. What did Atticus want the jury to understand about Mayella Violet Ewell’s life style? ________________________________________________________ • 2. Why could Tom Robinson probably NOT have beaten Mayella on the right side of her face? _________________________________________________________________

  36. Chapter Nineteen • Chapter 19: 1. *As far as the white community is concerned, Tom makes a fatal mistake under cross examination. What was it? ______________________________________ • 2. Scout’s attitude of “He’s just a Negro.” versusDill’s and Dolphus Raymond’s “Hasn’t anybody got any business talkin’ like that.” and “You aren’t thin-hided, it just makes you sick, doesn’t it?” (199) represent the various levels of maturity in the human relationships and attitudes of various adults in Maycomb and the world.

  37. Chapter Twenty • Chapter 20: 1. Why does Mr. Raymond drink Coca-Cola? • ____________________________________________________________________ • 2. According to Atticus, what is Mayella’s crime? • ____________________________________________________________________ • 3. According to Atticus, are all humans created equal? YES NO • 4. When are men and women to be treated as equal? _________________________

  38. Chapter Twenty One • Chapter 21: 1. Despite Jem’s confidence about the verdict, what does the Reverend Sykes say about juries and their decisions? • ______________________________________________________________

  39. Chapter Twenty Two • Chapter 22: 1. To what is Atticus referring when he says, “I don’t know, but they did it. They’ve done it before and they did it tonight and they’ll do it again, and when they do it–seems that only children weep” (213). ______________________________________ • 2. What sorts of things did Cal find on the porch the next morning? • ____________________________________________________________________ • 3. Why are those things there? ___________________________________________ • Miss Maudie tells Jem to “start thinking [. . . .] Did it ever strike you that Judge Taylor naming Atticus . . . was no accident” (215)? • 4. What’s the “danger a-comin’” (216)?

  40. Chapter Twenty Three • Chapter 23: Even at this point, Atticus tells Jem to “see if you can stand in Bob Ewell’s shoes a minute” (218). • 1. What will happen if Tom loses his appeal? _______________________________ • 2. At one point, Atticus states, “let me tell you something and don’t you forget it – whenever a white man does that to a black man, no matter who he is, how rich he is, or how fine a family he comes from, that white man is ______________” (220). • 3. “For one thing, Miss Maudie can’t serve on a jury because ___________________” (221). • 4. Jem figures he knows the real reason that Boo stays in his house. What is it? • ____________________________________________________________________

  41. Chapter Twenty Four • Chapter 24: It’s stated that the “missionary circle [fought ...] the good fight all over the house” (228). In discussing the horrid conditions of the “Mrunas,” the ladies of Maycomb ignore what fact(s)/idea(s)? ______________________________________________ • ____________________________________________________________________ • ____________________________________________________________________ • 2. What’s the tribute that Maycomb’s “handful” paid Atticus? • ____________________________________________________________________ • 3. Who, according the Miss Maudie, composes the “handful”?

  42. Chapter Twenty Five • Chapter 25: 1. Why won’t Jem let Scout mash the roly-poly? ___________________ • 2. Mr. B. B. Underwood compared killing Tom and killing _______________________ • 3. What did Mr. Ewell mean “one down and about two more to go” (241)? • ____________________________________________________________________

  43. Chapter Twenty Six • Chapter 26: 1. Scout gives some evidence of growing up. About what does she feel remorse? ____________________________________________________________ • 2. What is ironic about the scene in the school room and the Hitler discussion? • ____________________________________________________________________ • 3. Why did Jem lose his temper when Scout referred to the Robinson case? • ____________________________________________________________________

  44. Chapter Twenty Seven • Chapter 27: 1. What is Bob Ewell up to these days? • ____________________________________________________________________ • 2. What other “two small things” (247) happened to Maycomb citizens? • ____________________________________________________________________ • 3. What two things changed in Maycomb, one nation-wide and one very local? • ____________________________________________________________________

  45. Chapter Twenty Eight – Thirty One • Chapters 28-31: As the children go to the school for the Halloween doings, they hear “a solitary mocker [pour] out his repertoire in blissful unawareness” (254). • 1. When Heck Tate said, “I’m not thinking of Jem” (274), of whom was he thinking? • ____________________________________________________________________ • 2. What drunk did Tate probably get the switchblade from that night? _____________ • The question always remains as to who owned the kitchen knife stuck in Bob Ewell. • 3. What did Scout mean when she said, “It’d be sort of like shootin’ a mockingbird, wouldn’t it?” (276) To what sin was she referring? • ____________________________________________________________________ • 4. Harper Lee refers to two people in the four paragraphs beginning “It was still summertime…” (279). Who are the two people to whom the children belong? • ____________________________________________________________________ • Chapters 28-31: 5 points • 5. The mockingbird is a metaphor or symbol for several characters in the book. Who are they and why/how are they “mockingbirds”?