Lim SeiKee @ cK HND – 7. Communication
Communication • The transference and understanding of meaning. • Communication Functions: • Control member behavior • Foster motivation for what is to be done • Provide a release for emotional expression • Provide information needed to make decisions
Communication process • The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transference and understanding of meaning. • Key parts – • The sender • Encoding • The message • The channel • Decoding the receiver • Noise • Feedback
Communication Channels • Channel • The medium selected by the sender through which the message travels to the receiver • Types of Channels • Formal Channels • Are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members • Informal Channels • Used to transmit personal or social messages in the organization. These informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices
Direction of communication • Downward – flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level • Upward – flows to a higher level in the group or organization • Lateral – takes place among members of the same work group, among members of work groups at the same level, among managers at the same level
Direction of Communication UPWARD DOWNWARD LATERAL
Interpersonal communication • Oral Communication • Written communication • Nonverbal communication
Oral communication • Speeches, formal one-on-one and group discussion, informal rumor, grapevine • Advantages - • Speed & feedback • Response received in a minimal amount of time • If unsure, rapid feedback allows for early detection by sender • encouraging morale among organizational employees. • best used to transfer private and confidential information/matter
Disadvantages - oral communication • Relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient • Oral communication is less authentic than written communication • Oral communication is time-saving, but in case of meetings, long speeches consume lot of time and are unproductive at times. • Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are unsteady. • There may be misunderstandings as the information is not complete and may lack essentials.
Written communication • Memos, letters, fax, email, instant messaging, notices, bulletin • Advantages • Tangible and verifiable • Record of communication • Available for future references • For lengthy and complex communication • Well thought, logical and clear • There is a lesser chance for the message to be misunderstood
Disadvantages of written communication- • Time consuming • People may not always read them • No immediate feedback
Nonverbal Communication • Body Movement • Unconscious motions that provide meaning • Intonations and Voice Emphasis • The way something is said can change meaning • Facial Expressions • Show emotion • Physical Distance between Sender and Receiver • Can express interest or status
Interpersonal Communication • Oral Communication • Advantages: Speed and feedback • Disadvantage: Distortion of the message • Written Communication • Advantages: Tangible and verifiable • Disadvantages: Time-consuming and lacks feedback • Nonverbal Communication • Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings • Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver’s interpretation of message
Organizational communication • Formal small-group networks • Grapevine • Computer-Aided communication
Formal small-group networks • Chain – rigidly follows the formal chain of command • Wheel – relies on a central figure to act as the conduit for all the group’s communication • All-channel – permits all group members to actively communicate with each other
Grapevine • The organization’s informal communication network • Grapevine Characteristics • Informal, not controlled by management. • Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications.
Advantages- • creates a social bond • The grapevine fills in a gap that is left when official information is missing • Disadvantages- • information that gets spread through the grapevine is not verified • used to spread more than rumors; it's used to spread gossip • people's reputations, careers, and lives can get destroyed
Computer-aided communication: E-mail • E-mail • Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution • Disadvantages: • Messages are easily and commonly misinterpreted • Not appropriate for sending negative messages • Overused and overloading readers • Difficult to “get” emotional state understood – emoticons • Non-private: e-mail is often monitored and may be forwarded to anyone
Computer-aided communication: Instant/Text Messaging Forms of “real time” communication of short messages that often use portable communication devices. • Fast and inexpensive means of communication • Can be intrusive and distracting • Easily “hacked” with weak security • Can be seen as too informal • Instant Messaging • Immediate e-mail sent to receiver’s desktop or device • Text Messages • Short messages typically sent to cell phones or other handheld devices
Computer-aided communication: Instant/Text Messaging: Networking Software • Linked systems organically spread throughout the nation and world that can be accessed by a PC • Includes: • Social networks like MySpace® and Facebook® • Corporate networks such as IBM’s BluePages® • Key Points: • These are public spaces – anyone can see what you post • Can be used for job application screening • Avoid “overstimulating” your contacts
Computer-aided communication:Blogs & Videoconferencing • Blogs: Web sites about a single person (or entity) that are typically updated daily • A popular, but potentially dangerous activity: • Employees may post harmful information • Such comments may be cause for dismissal • Can be against company policy to post in a blog during company time and on company equipment/connections • Videoconferencing: uses live audio and video Internet streaming to create virtual meetings • Now uses inexpensive webcams and laptops in place of formal videoconferencing rooms
Channel richness • The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode
Choosing the Best Communication Channel: Media Richness The channel’s data-carrying capacity needs to be aligned with the communication activity High richness when channel: • conveys multiple cues • allows timely feedback • allows customized message • permits complex symbols
Barriers to effective communication • Filtering - A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver • Selective perception- People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes • Information overload- A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity
Barriers to effective communication • Emotions - How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted • Language - Words have different meanings to different people • Communication Apprehension - Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both
Barriers to effective communication • Gender Differences • Men tend to talk to emphasize status while women talk to create connections • “Politically Correct” • So concerned with being inoffensive that meaning and simplicity are lost • Free expression is in a weak position • CNN: “foreigner” is not allowed – “international” • Little people prefer “little people” instead of midgets
Barriers to effective communication • Cultural Barriers • Barriers caused by semantics • Barriers caused by word connotations • Barriers caused by tone differences • Barriers caused by differences among perceptions
Cultural Guide • Assume differences until similarity is proven. • Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation. • Practice empathy. • Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis.
Presentation Q • Define communication. Why is it important? • Contrast between oral communication, written communication and nonverbal communication. • What is grapevine? • Summarize barriers to effective communication and how to overcome them.